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NOTES - WEEK 1 & 2 vets.pdf - NOTES - WEEK 1 & 2 Monday, 28...

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LECTURE 1Learning outcomes:Explain how heat is lost from animalsExplain how heat is gained by animalsDescribe the concepts of homeothermy and the thermoneutral zoneProvide examples of the adverse consequences of exposure of animalsto temperatures above and below the thermoneutral zoneThermoregulation:Physiological and behavioral processes by which theanimal attempts to maintain a stable internal body temperature byregulating heat gain and heat loss*HEAT =/= TEMPERATURE*Body temperature depends on the balance between heat input and heatoutputInputs (heat gain)Outputs (heat loss)Metabolic heat production (from within the animal,eg when we exercise our muscles generate heat,can generate heatfrom digestion – in ruminantsthe bacterial breakdown in their stomach generatesheat)EvaporationIR from the sunConvectionIR from solid objects (eg other animals)IR from the animalConduction from the in-contact environmentConduction into thein-contactenvironment4 mechanisms of thermoregulation heat loss; IR, Convection, Conductionand EvaporationConvection heat lossTransfer of heat energy by air currentsAir in immediate contact with the animals skin is warmed byNOTES - WEEK 1 & 2Monday, 28 February 20228:41 PM
Air in immediate contact with the animals skin is warmed byconduction, warm air rises from the bodyCooler air moves into contact with the body, forming convectioncurrents*The greater the SA of the skin, the more effective cooling mechanisms are –including convection*Animals may have large ears, floppy skin etc, which allows for greater heatloss to the surrounding air via convectionEvaporation heat lossHeat is required to transform water from a liquid to a gas,Liquid evaporating from the animals surface has a cooling effect, as thetransformational heat is absorbed off of the animal surface*Panting is a cooling mechanism driven by evaporation by moisture from theairways, movement of the air helps with evaporation (hence why mouthopen)Radiation heat lossEmission of heat energy from the surface of the body in the form ofelectromagnetic waves in the IR spectrumAnimals can emit or absorb radiant heat depending on theirenvironment*If the animal is hotter than their environment, they will radiate heat into theenvironment and vice versaConduction heat lossRequires direct contactTransfer of heat between objects of different temperature*Hence why pigs wallow in mud/water, helps conduct heat awayfrom thebodySet point:Regular "core" body temperatureHeat gain/maintenanceHomeotherm:An animal that is able to maintain a relatively stable coretemperature range by internal means, within a wide range of environmentaltemperatures. They can regulate internal processes which control heatproduction/conservation, ie:ShiveringNon-shivering thermogenesis

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