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Sociology study guideIntroduction:Definition of sociology: Sociology is the scientific study of interactions and relationsamong human beings.The sociologist W. I. Thomas: “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.” The Thomas theorem articulated the sociological finding that had escaped many nonsocio- logical observers. Chapter 1Sociology defined:Augusta Comte urged that some scholars should specialize in studying the problems of modern society and propose solutions. In 1832 Comte named this field of study sociology.Social facts consist of manners of acting, thinking and feeling external to the individual, which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him.This likeness was important because it was what held people in premodern societies together. Likeness allowed people to experience solidarity.The specialized division of laborin modern society could not be held together by likeness and people became more different.Their similar circumstances led them to have shared ideas, values, and goals—or what Durkheim called a collective conscience. Durkheim called this sort of solidarity mechanicalbecause people in the community functioned together as a simple machine. People became more specialized and different, they grew more dependent on one another. For example, because they worked in specialized occupations, people needed each other as sources of trade. Durkheim called this sort of solidarity organic solidarity, because society functioned as a com- plex entity that depended on the proper functioning of a variety of parts, or organs.