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Unformatted text preview: Anatomy & Physiology OpenStax Rice University 6100 Main Street MS-375 Houston, Texas 77005 To learn more about OpenStax, visit . Individual print copies and bulk orders can be purchased through our website. © 2016 Rice University. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 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We support the creation, sharing, and proliferation of more effective, more affordable educational content by leveraging disruptive technologies, open educational resources, and new models for collaboration between for-profit, nonprofit, and public entities. I WOULDN’T THIS PENS I LOOK BETTER TUDENT E ON A BRAND MEET SC E NEW IPAD QUIREMENT I MINI? URSES. THESE AR EER-REVIEWED TEXTS WR ROFESSIONAL CONTENT EVELOPERS. ADOPT A BO ODAY FOR A TURNKEY LASSROOM SOLUTION OR TO SUIT YOUR TEACHING PPROACH. FREE ONLINE Knowing where our textbooks are used can help us provide better services to students and receive more grant support for future projects. If you’re using an OpenStax textbook, either as required for your course or just as an extra resource, send your course syllabus to [email protected] and you’ll be entered to win an iPad Mini. If you don’t win, don’t worry – we’ll be holding a new contest each semester. Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1: Levels of Organization Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Human Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Functions of Human Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Requirements for Human Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Homeostasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Anatomical Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Medical Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Chemical Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 The Cell Membrane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 The Nucleus and DNA Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Protein Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Cell Growth and Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Cellular Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Types of Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Epithelial Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Tissue Injury and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 2: Support and Movement Chapter 5: The Integumentary System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Layers of the Skin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6: Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Bone Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Bone Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Bone Formation and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6 Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems Chapter 7: Axial Skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 The Skull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 The Vertebral Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 The Thoracic Cage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Development of the Appendicular Skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9: Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 10 11 16 18 22 25 31 43 44 51 56 60 66 89 90 99 106 112 117 123 137 138 142 152 162 164 166 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 182 193 198 203 215 216 220 222 233 239 243 247 257 258 260 279 292 294 309 310 314 324 330 338 357 9.1 Classification of Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 9.2 Fibrous Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 9.4 Synovial Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 9.5 Types of Body Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 9.7 Development of Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 10.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 10.2 Skeletal Muscle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 10.3 Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 10.4 Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 10.6 Exercise and Muscle Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 10.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 10.8 Smooth Muscle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 10.9 Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Chapter 11: The Muscular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 11.1 Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems 448 11.2 Naming Skeletal Muscles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 11.3 Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 11.4 Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Thorax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 11.6 Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control Chapter 12: The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 12.2 Nervous Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 12.3 The Function of Nervous Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 12.4 The Action Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 12.5 Communication Between Neurons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 Chapter 13: Anatomy of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 13.1 The Embryologic Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 13.2 The Central Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 13.3 Circulation and the Central Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 Chapter 14: The Somatic Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 14.1 Sensory Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 14.2 Central Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 14.3 Motor Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 15.2 Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 15.3 Central Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675 15.4 Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679 Chapter 16: The Neurological Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694 16.2 The Mental Status Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 Chapter 17: The Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733 17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 17.2 Hormones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 17.4 The Thyroid Gland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758 17.6 The Adrenal Glands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 17.7 The Pineal Gland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764 This OpenStax book is available for free at 17.8 Gonadal and Placental Hormones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.11 Development and Aging of the Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 4: Fluids and Transport Chapter 18: The Cardiovascular System: Blood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1 An Overview of Blood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3 Erythrocytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5 Hemostasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.6 Blood Typing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1 Heart Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3 Cardiac Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4 Cardiac Physiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5 Development of the Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation . . . . . . 20.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3 Capillary Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4 Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5 Circulatory Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 21: The Lymphatic and Immune System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies . . . . . . 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses . . . 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange Chapter 22: The Respiratory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2 The Lungs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3 The Process of Breathing . ....
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  • Physiology, Anatomy, The American, Main Street, anatomy & physiology, National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, North Central Association of Colleges and Schools

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