GENED final notes (111)

GENED final notes (111) - Swaraj means self-governance or

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Unformatted text preview: Swaraj means self-governance or "home-rule" but the word usually refers to Mahatma Gandhi's concept for Indian independence from foreign domination. Swaraj lays stress on governance not by a hierarchical government, but self governance through individuals and community building. The focus is on political decentralization. Since this is against the political and social systems followed by Britain, Gandhi's concept of Swaraj laid stress on India discarding British political, economic, bureaucratic, legal, military, and educational institutions Sepoy was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. Specifically, it was the term used in the British Indian Army for an infantry Private (a cavalry Trooper was a Sowar), and is still so used in the modern Indian Army, Pakistan Army and Bangladesh Army. Mustafa Kemal Atatrk was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. Mustafa Kemal established himself as a successful military commander while serving as a division commander in the Battle of Gallipoli of World War I. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire at the hands of the Allies, and the subsequent plans for its partition, Mustafa Kemal led the Turkish national movement in what would become the Turkish War of Independence. His successful military campaigns led to the liberation of the country and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal implemented what are known as Atatrk's Reforms which led to sweeping changes in the political, economic and cultural sphere of the Kemalist state, striving to create a modern, democratic and secular state based on Western principles of governance. Shaka : Widely credit with transforming the Zulu tribe from a small clan into the beginnings of nation that held sway over the large porton of Southern Africa between Phongolo and Mzimkhulu rivers. His military prowess and destructiveness have been widely credited. He was something of a military genius for his reforms and innovations. The Zulu culture which included other tribes and clans contains a number of practices that Shaka could have drawn on to fulfill his objectives whether in raiding, conquest or hegemony. Lzaro Crdenas was President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940. Lzaro Crdenas was born into a lower-middle class family in the village of Jiquilpan, Michoacn. He supported his family (including his mother and 7 younger siblings) from age 16 on after the death of his father. By the age of 18 he had worked as a tax collector, a printer's devil, and a jailkeeper. Although he left school at the age of eleven, he used every opportunity to educate himself and read widely throughout his life, especially works of history. Crdenas originally set his sights at becoming a teacher, but was drawn into politics and the military during the Mexican Revolution after Victoriano Huerta overthrew President Francisco Madero. He backed Plutarco Elas Calles, and after Calles became president, Francisco Madero....
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GENED final notes (111) - Swaraj means self-governance or

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