Abolition of Slavery - IB HOA/Walton Abolitionism Notes...

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IB HOA/Walton Abolitionism Notes Abolitionists These were the people who favored actively intervening in the South to abolish slavery. They weren’t just philosophical objectors; they were active, not passive. Following the revolution and during the first couple of decades of the 19 th Century, opposition existed in the South towards slavery , particularly in Virginia and Maryland. It was also the result of economics because excess slaves were not very profitable (remember, this was when tobacco had exhausted much of the soil and many planters were looking westward). It was also the product of the natural rights doctrine which stated that all men were created free and equal. There were lots of individual owners freeing their slaves at this time. The American Colonization Society was organized as a means of sending freed slaves back to Africa. In 1820 the Missouri controversy erupted around the question of slavery expansion . Should entering states be admitted as slave or free states, and who would make that decision (more on this in the next IB unit.)? As you know, after 1831 there was a strong conservative reaction to the rise of abolitionism in the north—they called for the immediate release of all slaves. The South’s attitude tuned from one of apology to positive defense —that slavery was a positive good; slavery was the greatest institution known to man; anyone denying this in the South came under opposition and even became outcasts. Abolition Movement David Walker : Walker was born a free black in North Carolina and moved to Massachusetts where he wrote Walker’s Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World in 1829. The pamphlet was very incendiary, depicting the wretchedness of slave life and calling for massive slave uprisings and revolts on all plantations in the South. This very pamphlet caused the states of North Carolina, Georgia, and Louisiana to pass laws forbidding the teaching of slaves to read and write . William Lloyd Garrison : Garrison was from Boston and in January 1831 began to publish a paper called The Liberator . Garrison called for the immediate liberation of all slaves in the South. Garrison was seen as a fanatic by many and was even despised by some. He once called the US Constitution a “Covenant with Death and an Agreement with Hell.” He had been known to burn the Constitution publicly on at least two occasions. In 1835, Garrison was dragged through the streets of Boston and beaten up by his fellow Bostonians for his actions and strong beliefs. Garrison was the principal founder of the New England Anti-Slavery society and the foremost leader of the abolition movement. The Ohio Group : This group was much more moderate than Garrison in their stand on slavery. They were referred as the Ohio Group because of their involvement with the Lane Theological Seminary located in Cincinnati—the school was run by Theodore Dwight Weld . This group was very prominent in the Midwest .

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