Civil Rights #1 Pre- 1950s - The Civil Rights Movement in...

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The Civil Rights Movement in the United States Part I: Up to 1954
Blacks in Post-Civil War America After the Civil War, most African-Americans were still found in the South Very few blacks were able to own land; most often blacks were forced into sharecropping or tenant farmers Economic conditions thus changed very little over time States created legal segregation rules known as Jim Crow laws
Memories of Sharecropping (video)
Stereotypes in the 1920s (video)
Voting and Jim Crow To prevent black voting, states enacted rules that used one or all of the following: Literacy Tests Poll taxes Grandfather clauses Property requirements
Civil Rights Cases, 1883 The Civil Rights Act of 1875 had forbid racial discrimination on juries and public places like streetcars, hotels, etc. The Supreme Court declared the Act unconstitutional in 1883, noting that the 14 th Amendment protected citizens only from governmental interference
Plessy v. Ferguson , 1896 Landmark civil rights case before the US Supreme Court Ruled that “separate but equal” public facilities were constitutional under the “equal protection” clause of the U.S. Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment What was the Fourteenth Amendment?
More on Plessy , and Jim Crow (video)
Lynchings Mob rule/ vigilantism led to both blacks and whites being hung for real or imagined offenses outside of the legal system Terrorizing the black population to “stay in line” on purpose

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