Civil War and Reconstruction - Civil War Reconstruction...

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Civil War & Reconstruction Page 1 of3 Outline The Civil War & Reconstruction I. The Similarities and Differences that Existed Between the Ante-bellum North and the South. 1) Similarities: a) a shared history; b) interdependent economics; and, c) both looked to the West for their future. 2) Differences: The North was manufacturing society based on free labor. The South was an agricultural society based on slave labor. The West tended toward family farms. 3) Northern working class opposed slavery for economic, political, and philosophical reasons. They did not want competition with slave labor, they favored industry, and slavery was seen as an embarrassment. South supported slavery because: a) it was profitable and southern capital was heavily invested in slaves; b) slave ownership determined one's status in southern society; c) it was a method of race control; and, e) it insured a reliable labor supply for the plantation economy. 4) The South wanted to spread slavery into the new territories and the North opposed this movement. The region that controlled the new territories would control the political, economic, and social power of the nation. 5) South believed that states created the US and they could secede; North believed that "the people" created the Union and states could not leave. ll. The Events that Dlustrate the Conflicts Between the North and the South from the Compromise of 1820 to the Election of Abraham Lincoln. I) The Missouri Compromise (1820). ME joined Union as a free state, MO as a slave state; no slavery in the LA Purchase north of 36°30" (except MO). 2) Texas-Mexican War. Texas independence (1835) led to debate over the expansion of slavery. Texas not admitted to the Union until 1845 when it could be counterbalanced by Oregon. 3) Abolitionists turn militant (1830s). People's conscience about the evils of slavery was increased. 4) The Mexican War (1846-1848). Brought the slavery question onto the national scene. Northern Whigs opposed the war because of slavery. The Wilmont Proviso forced Congress to take a stand. 5) The Compromise of 1850: a) California came into the Union as a free state; b) The rest of the Mexican cession was organized by popular sovereignty; c) the slave trade was abolished in Washington, DC; and, d) a stronger fugitive slave law was enacted. 6) Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) reinforced regional stereotypes. 7) The Gadsden Purchase (1853). Northern Senators tumeddown 9,000 square miles of Mexican territory to prevent the spread of slavery. 8) The Ostend Manifesto (1854). Northerners saw the desire of some members of the Pierce administration to take Cuba as part of a southern slave conspiracy. 9) The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854). A mini-civil war over whether Kansas should be slave or free ("Bleeding Kansas") kept bitterness over slavery high. 10) The Breakdown of Political Parties (1850's). The debate over slavery caused the parties to become sectional. Increased immigration caused the Whig party to lose strength in the North. Northern, anti-slavery Democrats, joined with anti-slavery Whigs and the anti-Catholic American party to form the Republican party. Southern Whigs

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