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Genetics&EVOlution_onlineNotes - Genetics Evolution...

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Genetics, Evolution & Behavior 1. Genes and Behavior 2. Evolution and Behavior 1. Genetics 0. Genes- fundamental units of heredity 1. Chromosomes- strands of genes 0. DNA –double stranded 1. RNA – single stranded Transcription/ Translation 0. Transcription 0. DNA – mRNA 1. Translation 1. mRNA- tRNA – Protein 1. Genes & Behavior 2. Genes stretches of dna along our chromosomes that code for proteins 3. Genes proteins = 1. Genes 2. Homozygous (RR ) or (rr) 3. Heterozygous (Rr) – R usually dominant 4. Dominant (RR )- 5. Recessive (rr) - Dominance example 6. Dominant =Tall 7. Recessive = short 8. F2 = 100% Tt 9. Phenotype (F2) *look* 2. 75% tall 3. 25% short plants 10. Genotype (F2) *allele* 4. TT 25%, Tt 50%, tt 25% Medel’s Experiments
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-Phenotype- observable traits -genotype-gene traits Incomplete Dominance Example RR-red x rr-white = Rr-pink 1. Genes & Behavior 4. Genes on chromosomes -23 chromosomes in humans, allele on each chromosome 5. Genes proteins = Meiosis-leads to variation- randomly sorted Linkage-tendacy for traits to be inherited on the same chromosome Crossing over- increases diversity Sex Chromosomes and Sex-linked traits -sex chromosomes, x and y, look different and carry different genes Female=XX Male=XY Sex-linked traits- Dominant traits on the X chromosome seen more commonly in females, recessive ones in males 1. Evidence that Genes Behavior? a. Comparison of inbred strains of animals 5. Ex. lab mice – antipredator behavior Freeze or flee b. Hybridization 6. crossing males and females of different strains 7. documenting behavior of offspring intermediate of behavior different physical characteristics c. “Common Garden” experiment 8. Different strains raised in same environment Ex. Feeding preferences in neonate garter snakes (thamnophis elegans)
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(Arnold 1980) Coast-slugs, raise inland without slugs-strike at swab with scent of slug -genetic food preference d. Artificial selection experiment 9.
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