US History I - US History I Chapter One I Why was the...

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US History I Chapter One I. Why was the Western world ready to expand? A. Control 1. Whomever controlled the Mediterranean controlled Western Europe 2. Closed/Particular (pertaining to a single group) - noblemen and lords controlled most - 90% of people were peasants - Freedom: move/trade - Peasants had a closed system economically and had zero political participation B. Transition 1. Revival of Commerce - 2 areas not controlled by Muslims Venice Scandinavian Peninsula - Bourg (area of trading between traders and vassals) Fauxbourg- traders trading outside the castle which resulted in a city- building project - Freedom becomes a key concept since they began to feel free to move, charge and barter - Idea of wanting direct trade route 2. Political Life (Post Charlemagne): Rise of the Nation-States - Portugal first to arise as a nation-state - Spain expelled the Muslims from Grenade in 1492, leading to the funding of Columbus - France came later since they were not fully united Dukes and Counts started to centralize the governments by appointing the king Eleanor of Aquitaine 3. The Church - The church was the entity that controlled salvation - Pope’s Power Excommunication - eternal separation from God based on the Pope Interdict - banning whole countries from salvation - Sun-Moon Theory - moon derives light from the sun as the secular ruler derives right to rule from the Pope - Pope told to bring Papacy to France. He refused, which led to his kidnapping and death France and Italy then elected their own popes 4. Reawakening of University - Invention of the compass and astrolabe II. Why does England succeed in North America while Spain and France fail? A. Spain 1. Heavily influenced by the Catholic church and was less likely to endorse democracy 2. Biggest failure: adapting to local environments 3. 2 Goals - Finding wealth - Christianizing natives 4. Narvez was an early conquistador who discovered the golden rattle in an abandoned Indian village
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- Sent northward to mines in Appalachian Mountains by Indians to find the gold, but could not find any - He reached the village of Saint Marks where diseases were rampant - Spaniards continued to die due to the winter - 3 Spaniards and 1 black man escaped including, de Baca 5. De Baca traveled back without wealth 6. De Soto is named Governor of North America, not to conquer but to learn and govern. - Oritz was a Spaniard saved by Chief’s daughter and was used as a guide - Without Massachusetts, the Catholic Spaniards would eternally die 7. Changes in Spanish Exploration - They chose to come back to America to protect South American interests - France and England joined forces to challenge Spain Piracy was prevalent Raiding posts were built - France and Spain begin battle of fort building - Spain uses Franciscan missionaries to build relations with the Indians and in some ways, modernize them to Spanish codes B. English Success 1. Depended on subsurface wealth - Time to extract materials - Labor needed to extract the materials - Cost to extract the materials 2.
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