Mesopotamia and Egypt- Hist - Mesopotamia and Egypt Civilization-Latin root civis meaning citizen the beginning of cities I Mesopotamia Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia and Egypt- Hist - Mesopotamia and Egypt...

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Mesopotamia and Egypt:Civilization-Latin root “civis” meaning citizen; the beginning of citiesI.MesopotamiaMesopotamia means “land between two rivers”-Tigris and Euphrates RiverLocated in modern IraqA. The Agricultural Revolution (8000-6000 BC)-crops will give a surplus-> mass production of food-Positive: less uncertainty about food, allows for development of skilled workers, possibility of restart due to bad year-Negative: disease, gender inequality (women take role taker position)B. The Urban Revolution (5500-3000 BC)-self-sustained economic units-First city: Uruk , Mesopotamia (50,000 people by 3000 BC)-Consequences: specialization of skills and jobs (diversification), large scale warfare, create hierarchy, currency, protection (wall)C. Mesopotamian Cities-Sumer (Sumerians), Babylonia (Babylonians), Assyria (Assyrians)-city states- city with their own government system-Sargon of Akkad unified north and south Mesopotamia to create Sumer in 2340 BC (first king)*first historically recognized person in the Middle East -Sumerian Empire of UR lasts from 2119-2004 BC ruled by King Ur-NammuD. Mesopotamia-Ziggurats- mud, brick tower used for religious purposes-polytheistic- believed gods created order and chaos *historians discounted oral tradition when making the jump from prehistory (prewriting) to history (writing)
-publication of a code of law- organized way justice is carried out-significant trade system and relationships-stratified society-Enheduanna- world’s first named author- daughter of Sargon-wrote a series of hymns dedicated to the gods-cuneiform: Latin root “cuneis” meaning wedge -Pictographs-came around 3100-3200 BC -deciphered by Henry Rawlinson (British Scholar who studied Assyrian Empire) in 1835-inscription used to decipher cuneiform was written in three differentformsEgypt-unified way earlier than Mesopotamia because the greater population is surrounding the Nile-Cataracts in the south, desert in the west, Mediterranean Sea in the North and Red sea in the south provide geographic protection-Pharaoh unified empire as a ruler (First Narmer (Menes) -Memphis-capital of Old Kingdom-pharaoh buried in pyramid (proximity to the gods)-King Djoser- first stepped pyramid created by architect Imhotep in 2686-Characteristics: unity, pharaonic government, permanence, polytheistic religion (Horus, Osiris, Isis) and writing (Hieroglyphics-Jean Francois Champollion-French Academic) -Rosetta Stone founded by Napoleon’s army in 1799 in Rosetta Egypta. Now in the British Museum, London
b. Ancient Greek, Demotic, __________Egyptian Art and Architecture-early Egyptian art is characterized as enduring and continuous-Egyptian--no vast public works survive (canals, dams)-little of palaces and cities

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