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Sociolinguistic terms - update-1

Sociolinguistic terms - update-1 - diglossic when there is...

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Sociolinguistic Terms (updated 2/24/08) 1. A language is a system of sounds, words and grammatical patterns that allow for communication within a community of speakers. A language may be used in oral and written communication. 2. Language and society mutually interact. Language use is influenced by social structure and society is shaped by language use. 3. Concepts of language, dialect, code, & variety of a language . a. High language versus Low language b. Standard language versus 'dialect' c. Regional variety of a language d. Social variety of a language 4. Diglossia describes a society in which there are two (often closely-related) languages which are used in different contexts. The High form of the language is powerful and prestigious; it is learned by the elite in school and has a literate tradition. Thus, the High form is used in schools and by the government. The Low form does not have power, is learned by all at home, and does not have a literate tradition. A society with a High and a Low variety of a language becomes
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Unformatted text preview: diglossic when there is limited access to the High variety over a long period of time. 5. Terms: register/style of language (informal versus formal) & accent. 6. Multilingualism, bilingualism (These terms can be used to describe individual ability or a society.) 7. Speech community- those who communicate with each other. 8. Power and Solidarity- are characterized by asymmetrical and symmetrical language relations, respectively. 9. Language standardization- a top-down governmental planning effort 10. Language change comes both from the top-down or bottom-up. 11. Motivations for language change : a. Mark oneself off from another group – achieve independence from a group. b. Include oneself within a group – achieve solidarity with a group. c. Emulate higher status group (hypercorrection to gain status/prestige ). d. React to the forces of the marketplace (economic motivation). 12. Language and power- control of language access = control to power....
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