4 Outline - Chapter four Chemistry Outline Lecture Major...

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Chapter four Chemistry Outline Lecture Major Classes of Rxns Water (awesome solvent) a bent polar molec with covalent bonds, electrons shifted toward O atom, unequal charge distribution and bent shape = polarity. Water dissolves subs with complete or partial charge Ionic Charges- dissassociated by H2O Covalent cmpds- Acids- dissociated by H2O, polar cmpds- dissolved by H2O (not dissociated), Non-polar Cmpds- not dissolved by H2O Electrolyte- a sub that conducts current when dissolved in water (ions carry electrical charge through soln) Strong electrolytes- complete dissociation in H2O Soluble salts, strong acids (produce H+ when dissolved in H2O), strong bases (produce OH- when dissolved in H2O) Weak electrolytes- small degree of dissociation in H2O Insoluble salts (slightly soluble), weak acids, weak bases Dynamic equilibrium- Molec continually dissociates and ions cont. recombine. The process is reversible. At equilb no further changes in amts of reactants and products. On macroscopic scale- system appears static. On microscopic scale process is dynamic. Non-electrolytes- no dissocition in H2O Types of Rxns- (Precipitation, acid/base, redox) Precipitation Two soluble cmpds combine to form an insoluble cmpd Acid- Base Rxn (Neutralization or Proton Transfer) Acid + base = water + salt (molecular Eqn) Total ionic Eqn writing the strong electrolytes as dissociated includes spectators Net Ionic Eqn- doesn’t include spectators Titration- soln of a known conc is used to determine conc of another sol’n
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When neutralized the # mol H+ = # mol OH- (equivalence point) Redox Rxns- movement of electrons from one reactant to another Oxidation #- (ON) effective charge on an atom Elemental form the ON- 0 Atomic ion- ON= charge Atom in ion or cmpd- Sum of ON = overall charge If something is oxidized – lost e- reduced- gain of e- (Text) Major Classes of Chemical Rxns 4.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent The Polar Nature of Water- Water solvent nature results from its ability to distribute bonding electrons and its overall shape. O atoms attracts e-s more strongly than H atom. Unequal distribution creates a partially charged poles on the end of the O-H bond. H slightly negative pole. Thus a polar molecule. Ionic Cmpds in Water- Water sep the ions by replacing that attraction with one btwn the
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4 Outline - Chapter four Chemistry Outline Lecture Major...

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