12 Outline - 12 Outline Intermolecular Forces: Liquids,...

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12 Outline Intermolecular Forces: Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes 12.1 An overview of Physical States and Phase Changes Intramolecular Forces- bonding forces that exist in each molecule and influence chemical props Intermolecular Forces- nonbonding forces that exist btwn molecules and influence physical properties. A Kinetic-Molecular View of the Three States State depends on interplay of potential nrg of intermolecular forces. Different props- compressibility, shape an ability to flow. Gas has high nrg, liq med, solid lowest Types of Phase Changes Condensation- gas to liquid Vaporization- liquid to gas Freezing- liquid solidification Melting/Fusion- solid to liquid *Condensation and Freezing are exothermic s *Melting and Vaporization are endothermic s Heat of Vaporization H ° (vap) is the enthalpy per mole More nrg is required to remove forces that connect molecules in fixed positions Sublimination- solid to gas Deposition- gas to a solid H ° (subl) 12.2 Quantitative Aspects of Phase Change Heat involved in Phase Changes: A Kinetic-molecular Approach Heating-Cooling Curve- shows the s that occur when heat is added or removed from a particular sample of matter at a constant rate. Five heat-releasing stages: Stage 1- Gaseous Water Cools Stage 2- Gaseous Water Condenses Stage 3- Liquid Water Cools Stage 4- Liquid Water Freezes Stage 5- Solid Water Cools
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The Equilibrium Nature of Phase Changes - phase changes of many substances are irreversible Liquid-Gas Equilibria Dynamic Equilibrium- the point where the forward and reverse processes are taking place at the same rate, so there is no net change in the amounts of reactants and products
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12 Outline - 12 Outline Intermolecular Forces: Liquids,...

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