Topic 4 Macronutrients - Topic 4 Macronutrients Lesson 1 Carbohydrates Introductory Video Carbohydrates C H O Fats C H O Video 1 Micronutrients Minerals

Topic 4 Macronutrients - Topic 4 Macronutrients Lesson 1...

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Topic 4: Macronutrients Lesson 1: Carbohydrates Introductory Video: - Carbohydrates: C, H, O - Fats: C, H, O Video 1: - Micronutrients: Minerals and vitamins - Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, fats, proteins - Fats: 65g/day - Protein: 60g/day - Complex Carbohydrates: 240g/day - Sugar: 50g/day - Total macronutrients: 415g/day (based on a 2000 calorie diet) - The NA diet has changed over the years: fruits and veggies stayed the same, fats and oils increased, white and whole wheat flour increased, chicken increased dramatically - Changes in diet from 1970-2006 from 16.4 lb/week to 18.6 lb/week - Dairy -20% - Meat/eggs +11%, sugar +17%, fruit +26%, grains +42%, fats +59% - Ample food supply - Proteins/Carbohydrates: 4calories/g - Fats: 9cal/g - Fibre 2cal/g Grams %Wt %Cal Fats 100 20 36 Carbohydrates 300 60 48 Protein 100 20 16 Activity 1: Sources of carbs: - Brown rice - Cherry pie - White beans - Corn - Green peas - Yams - Lentils - Milk - Pasta - Bananas Video 2: - Classic Carbohydrates is sucrose (table sugar) - Sucrose: C 12 H 22 O 11 - Or C 12 (H 2 O) 11 Carbo”hydrate
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- C 6 H 12 O 6 C 6 (H 2 O) 6 (Carbohydrate ) - Sucrose 4cal/g - Two carbohydrate molecule parts to sucrose - These “monosaccharides” are linked tgt by an Oxygen atom Disaccharide (sucrose) Video 3: - Our bodies use carbohydrates to create energy - This is an oxidation reaction (Energy + H20 + CO 2 Plants Carbohydrates + O 2 ) - (Carbohydrates + O 2 ) is glucose - So when glucose it consumed(oxidized), gives back H20 (glucose oxidation) - Glucose: Stereochemistry – directions of H/OH - Video 4: - Methane molecule - Carbon can bond very well - Glucose: 6-membered ring with 1 O and 5 C - Even simplest deviations of directions of OH group, it becomes a diff sugar entirely Video 5: - Glucose linked tgt to form starch and cellulose - - Humans can digest starch but not glucose (while cows can) - Complete oxidation of glucose: C 6 H 12 0 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 +6H 2 O Video 6: - Sucrose = Glucose (aka Dextrose) + Fructose - An enzyme can break the disaccharide into glucose and fructose separately - This enzyme has an –ase ending (e.g. invertase) - The separate monoccharides glucose+fructose = invert sugar (50/50 glucose/fructose)
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- Separate glucose molecules can then be converted into energy by process of complete oxidation Video 7: - Fructose is sweeter than sucrose or glucose, hence used as an independent sweetner - Honey has a high fructose39% and a low sucrose1% so it is very sweet - Sucrose + Molasses = brown sugar - “no preservatives added” high sugar concentrations don’t need preservatives anyways - Maltose: disaccharide with 2 glucose molecules - Maltose: sweetening agent derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch - Lactose: disaccharide with galactose and glucose - A lot of ppl cannot digest milk (lactose in the milk) – Lactose intolerant - Lactase deficiency 65% world; 75% NA Blacks, 25%NA Whites - These ppl can drink milk with the help of LacAID (works as an enzyme and prevents the breaking up of the product) Activity 5: Sweetest: 1. Fructose 2. Honey 3. Sucrose 4. Glucose Video 8: - Beano: an enzyme (Alpha-galactosidase) that breaks down the sugars in beans that create gas, but very expensive - Amylose (Starch) breaks down by amylase (enzyme) -
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