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Topic 4: Macronutrients★ Lesson 1: Carbohydrates Introductory Video: -Carbohydrates: C, H, O-Fats: C, H, OVideo 1:-Micronutrients: Minerals and vitamins-Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, fats, proteins-Fats: 65g/day-Protein: 60g/day -Complex Carbohydrates: 240g/day-Sugar: 50g/day-Total macronutrients: 415g/day (based on a 2000 calorie diet)-The NA diet has changed over the years: fruits and veggies stayed the same, fats and oilsincreased, white and whole wheat flour increased, chicken increased dramatically-Changes in diet from 1970-2006 from 16.4 lb/week to 18.6 lb/week-Dairy -20%-Meat/eggs +11%, sugar +17%, fruit +26%, grains +42%, fats +59%-Ample food supply -Proteins/Carbohydrates: 4calories/g-Fats: 9cal/g-Fibre 2cal/gGrams%Wt%CalFats1002036Carbohydrates3006048Protein1002016Activity 1: Sources of carbs:-Brown rice-Cherry pie -White beans -Corn -Green peas-Yams -Lentils -Milk -Pasta-Bananas Video 2: -Classic Carbohydrates is sucrose (table sugar)-Sucrose: C12H22O11 -Or C12(H2O)11Carbo”hydrate”
-C6H12O6C6(H2O)6(Carbohydrate)-Sucrose 4cal/g-Two carbohydrate molecule parts to sucrose -These “monosaccharides” are linked tgt by an Oxygen atom Disaccharide (sucrose)Video 3: -Our bodies use carbohydrates to create energy -This is an oxidation reaction (Energy + H20 + CO2PlantsCarbohydrates + O2)-(Carbohydrates + O2) is glucose-So when glucose it consumed(oxidized), gives back H20 (glucose oxidation)-Glucose: Stereochemistry – directions of H/OH-Video 4: -Methane molecule -Carbon can bond very well-Glucose: 6-membered ring with 1 O and 5 C-Even simplest deviations of directions of OH group, it becomes a diff sugar entirelyVideo 5:-Glucose linked tgt to form starch and cellulose--Humans can digest starch but not glucose (while cows can)-Complete oxidation of glucose: C6H1206+ 6O26CO2+6H2OVideo 6: -Sucrose = Glucose (aka Dextrose) + Fructose-An enzyme can break the disaccharide into glucose and fructose separately-This enzyme has an –ase ending (e.g. invertase)-The separate monoccharides glucose+fructose = invert sugar (50/50 glucose/fructose)
-Separate glucose molecules can then be converted into energy by process of complete oxidationVideo 7:-Fructose is sweeter than sucrose or glucose, hence used as an independent sweetner-Honey has a high fructose39% and a low sucrose1% so it is very sweet-Sucrose + Molasses = brown sugar -“no preservatives added” high sugar concentrations don’t need preservatives anyways-Maltose: disaccharide with 2 glucose molecules-Maltose: sweetening agent derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch-Lactose: disaccharide with galactose and glucose-A lot of ppl cannot digest milk (lactose in the milk) – Lactose intolerant-Lactase deficiency 65% world; 75% NA Blacks, 25%NA Whites -These ppl can drink milk with the help of LacAID (works as an enzyme and prevents the breaking up of the product)Activity 5:Sweetest:1.Fructose2.Honey3.Sucrose 4.GlucoseVideo 8:-Beano: an enzyme (Alpha-galactosidase) that breaks down the sugars in beans that create gas, but very expensive-Amylose (Starch) breaks down by amylase (enzyme)-