Topic 6: Food Additives ★ Lesson 1: Food Additives I Video 1: - Wax is added to fruits and vegetables - E.g. wax added to apples to preserve it form drying out (the apples natural wax is washed off after picking) - Morpholine is the chemical added to apple for coating, to turn into nitroso-morpholine (carcinogenic?) - Natural nitrates in cabbage, is it carcinogenic? No - Scary headlines often are misleading and false Video 2: - Romans loved wine, but their wine was often fortified with lead acetate to make it sweeter (not healthy) - Middle ages add copper salt to make vegetables greener and more aesthetically appealing - 18 th /19 th century, bakers add plasters of Paris (CaSO 4 ) to flour to extend the flour. They sometimes used Arsenic (As s O 3 ) too - Nature itself contains many toxic chemicals: Cassava roots, lima beans, fruit seeds, bitter almonds contain natural cyanide compounds need to be prepared correctly to depoison - Sassafra leaves to make tea, but contains safrole (carcinogen) - Chemicals are needed in out body Video 3: - Chicken noodle soup - Ingredients in food are listed in decreasing amounts - Salt is a problem, consuming too much - - Next to sugar, salt is the most widely used ingredient added to food - In Canada, sugar and salt are not food additives - In US, sugar and salt are food additives - Many sugar substitutes, but little salt substitutes - You could decrease the size of salt crystals, which increases the surface area in contact with the tongue for taste Video 4: - Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) in chicken noodle soup - We take in 1lb/year of chemical additives - MSG present in seaweed (Japanese)
- Kikunae Ikeda Japanese professor said there are 5 tastes, sour, sweet, salty, bitter and Umami - Umami: brought bye MSG - MSG increased salivation (more flavor components extracted) and sensitivity in taste buds - Chinese Restaurant Syndrome aka Kwok’s disease - Glutamic acid: precursor to MSG, many foods naturally have this - MSG production in lab: Molasses Bacteria Glutamic acid NaOH MSG - MSG is responsible for adverse effects, but not allergic reactions, cuz it does not affect the immune system - MSG can trigger asthma attacks in sensitive individuals Video 5: - 6 th taste: Kokumi (e.g. in cheese) Video 6: - What causes food to go bad? - Louis Pasteur: theory that bacteria can develop from nothing spontaneous generation - But later found out through experiement “L’experience du col de cygnet”, that it was actually microorganisms outside that created the bacteria - Salt is good at killing these microorganisms through osmosis -
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- Spring '11
- pH, Food coloring, food additives, Sugar substitute, E number, Food additive