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midterm note sheet

midterm note sheet - • input output y sensitivit ∆ ∆...

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Chapter 2 error = measured value – true value Systematic Errors o consistent, repeatable errors calibration errors calibration of the measurement instrument nonlinearity loading errors taking the measurement actually changes the result o immersing a thermometer in a liquid o non-ideal voltmeter draws current from circuit changing voltage special errors reading changes based on location of measurement Random Errors o Caused by a lack of repeatability o Generates a scatter of measurement results o Some sources temperature drift electrical noise o Minimization Stabilize environment, eliminate noise Take “enough” measurements Measurement Errors o random error = reading – average or readings o systematic error = average or readings – true value
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Unformatted text preview: • input output y sensitivit ∆ ∆ ≈ o sensitivity is determined through calibration o errors in this process can cause a span error • Calibration o A set of measurements are made and compared to known true values comparisons can be made by • a standard • a system of known accuracy • Chapter 3 • V=IR • Resistors o in series: R T = R 1 +R 2 +…+R n o in parallel: n T R R R R 1 ... 1 1 1 2 1 + + + = • Gain o i o V V G = or i o dB V V G 10 log 20 = • Chapter 4 o N rl ru step V V V 2-= • digital output o --= N rl ru rl i o V V V V D 2 int • input resolution error o volts V V N rl ru -± 2 5 ....
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