notes Gene Expression

notes Gene Expression - Chapter 18 Control of Gene...

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Chapter 18, Control of Gene Expression We looked previously at basics of how protein is made from DNA ( – transcribed to mRNA – translated to protein)… BUT: all cells in an organism have the same DNA YET: roots/leaves or neurons/muscle cells do different jobs, have different shape, express different genes to make different proteins!! My analogy: DNA genes are ‘recipes’ for making a protein. Every cell has a copy of the whole book of recipes. But some restaurants only use the Italian dishes, some restaurants only the vegetarian dishes, and others use their own mix of different recipes. How does that happen? It’s like the manager at one restaurant puts a sticky note or index tab on all the recipes that are to be used. By analogy, the cell’s DNA can be tagged by ‘sticky notes’ so that some genes are active and others are not. How? By using certain proteins – called Transcription Factors- that bind to DNA near the genes that should be used (expressed/ activated/turned on or off… ).
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