human-genome-project - The Human Genome Project http\/www.ornl.gov\/sci\/techresources\/Human_Genome\/education\/images.shtml Introduction Until the early

human-genome-project - The Human Genome Project...

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The Human Genome Project
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Introduction Until the early 1970’s, DNA was the most difficult cellular molecule for biochemists to analyze. DNA is now the easiest molecule to analyze – we can now isolate a specific region of the genome, produce a virtually unlimited number of copies of it, and determine its nucleotide sequence overnight. Molecular Biology Of The Cell. Alberts et al. 491-495
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Introduction At the height of the Human Genome Project, sequencing factories were generating DNA sequences at a rate of 1000 nucleotides per second 24/7. Technical breakthroughs that allowed the Human Genome Project to be completed have had an enormous impact on all of biology….. Molecular Biology Of The Cell. Alberts et al. 491-495
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Human Genome Project Goals: ■ identify all the approximate 30,000 genes in human DNA, ■ determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, ■ store this information in databases, ■ improve tools for data analysis, ■ transfer related technologies to the private sector, and ■ address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. Milestones: ■ 1990: Project initiated as joint effort of U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health ■ June 2000: Completion of a working draft of the entire human genome (covers >90% of the genome to a depth of 3-4x redundant sequence) ■ February 2001: Analyses of the working draft are published ■ April 2003: HGP sequencing is completed and Project is declared finished two years ahead of schedule U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs, Genomics and Its Impact on Science and Society, 2003
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What does the draft human genome sequence tell us? By the Numbers The human genome contains 3 billion chemical nucleotide bases (A, C, T, and G). • The average gene consists of 3000 bases, but sizes vary greatly, with the largest known human gene being dystrophin at 2.4 million bases. • The total number of genes is estimated at around 30,000--much lower than previous estimates of 80,000 to 140,000. • Almost all (99.9%) nucleotide bases are exactly the same in all people. • The functions are unknown for over 50% of discovered genes. U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs, Genomics and Its Impact on Science and Society, 2003
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What does the draft human genome sequence tell us? How It's Arranged The human genome's gene-dense "urban centers" are predominantly composed of the DNA building blocks G and C. • In contrast, the gene-poor "deserts" are rich in the DNA building blocks A and T. GC- and AT-rich regions usually can be seen through a microscope as light and dark bands on chromosomes.
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