ORIGINAL PAPER Comparative Analysis of Dof Transcription Factor Family in Maize Yuzhu Chen & Jun Cao # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 Abstract Deoxyribonucleic acid binding with one finger (Dof) family, a kind of plant-specific transcription factor fam- ily, is involved in a variety of biological processes including signal transduction, morphogenesis, and environmental stress responses. In the present study, 46 putative Dof genes were identified from maize ( Zea mays subsp. mays ). The predicted ZmDof genes were non-randomly distributed within their chromosomes, and segmental duplication seemed to be the prevalent mechanism for their expansion. Most of these genes lacked introns and some only possessed one intron. Here, we classified 140 Dof proteins from Arabidopsis , rice, sorghum, and maize into seven groups by means of phylogenetic anal- ysis. In addition, many cis -elements responding to light, en- dosperm specific gene expression, hormone, meristem specif- ic expression, and stress were also found in the 1,000 bps upstream sequences of promoter regions. Selection analysis also identified some significant site-specific constraints acted on most Dof paralogs. Expression profiles based on microar- ray data provided insights into the functional divergence of different tissues. Results by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that some ZmDofs responded to some abiotic stresses. Taken together, our study will provide some useful information for biological evolution and functional characterization of the maize Dof genes. Keywords Dof gene family . Maize . Expression . Evolution Abbreviations Dof DNA binding with one finger NJ neighbor joining MEME multiple EM for motif elicitation TSS transcription start site Introduction Transcription factors are also called trans -acting factors that participate in many important cellular processes, such as signal transduction, morphogenesis, and envi- ronmental stress responses, by influencing or controlling the expression of some specific genes. Transcription factors can be bound to cis -regulatory elements of pro- moters and then determine the transcription rate of genes (Wasserman and Sandelin 2004 ). At the same time, transcription factors can also mediate protein – pro- tein interactions in a complex network (Yanagisawa 1997 ). Numerous transcription factors have been identi- fied. And they can be divided into different gene fam- ilies (Yanagisawa and Schmidt 1999 ). Some families exist in both animals and plants, whereas others are specific for plants, such as WRKY (Eulgem et al. 2000 ), R2R3-MYB (Martin and Paz-Ares 1997 ), NAC (Olsen et al. 2005 ), TIFY (Vanholme et al. 2007 ), SBP- box (Yang et al. 2008 ), etc. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding with one finger (Dof) is a kind of plant-specific transcription factor gene family. Previous studies have shown that Dof domain proteins are active in plant processes as transcriptional activators or repressors (Yanagisawa 2004 ). The first Dof gene was found in maize (Yanagisawa and Izui 1993 ), which contained a conserved DNA binding Dof domain. This domain usually
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- Omair Gul
- DNA, dof genes