REVIEWInsights into structural and functional diversity of Dof(DNA binding with one finger) transcription factorS. Gupta•N. Malviya•H. Kushwaha•J. Nasim•N. C. Bisht•V. K. Singh•D. YadavReceived: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014ÓSpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015AbstractMain conclusionThe structural, functional and in-silico studies of Dof transcription factor attempted sofar reveals immense opportunity to analyze the plantgenomes in terms of number of Dof genes and discuss inlight of the evolution. The multiple functions of Dofgenes needs to explored for crop improvement.Transcription factors play a very vital role in gene regu-lation at transcriptional level and are being extensivelystudied across phylas. In recent years, sequencing of plantgenomes has led to genome-wide identification and char-acterizations of diverse types of plant-specific transcriptionfactor gene family providing key insights into their struc-tural and functional diversity. The DNA binding with onefinger (Dof), a class belonging to C2H2-type zinc fingerfamily proteins, is a plant-specific transcription factorhaving multiple roles such as seed maturation and germi-nation, phytohormone and light-mediated regulation andplant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof proteinsare present across plant lineage, from green algae to higherangiosperm, and represent a unique class of transcriptionfactor having bifunctional binding activities, with bothDNA and proteins, to regulate the complex transcriptionalmachinery in plant cells. The structural and functionaldiversity of the Dof transcription factor family along withthe bioinformatics analysis highlighting the phylogeny ofDof families is reviewed in light of its importance in plantbiotechnology for crop improvement.KeywordsTranscription factorÁDofÁZinc fingerÁGeneregulationÁIn silicoIntroductionTranscriptionfactors(TFs)recognizespecificDNAsequence elements within promoter and are responsible foractivating or repressing the activity of RNA polymerase vis-a-vis controlling the temporal and spatial expression of atarget gene. TFs manifest their function through direct orindirect (through co-activators) interactions with the basalapparatus that lead to changes in the properties of RNApolymerase. A typical plant transcription factor contains aDNA-binding domain, an oligomerization site, a transcrip-tion regulation domain and a nuclear localization signal.Most of the transcription factors have only one type of DNA-binding region and oligomerization region although somelack transcription regulation domain or a specific DNA-binding region. The DNA-binding domain of a TF interactswith DNA at thecis-sequence elements owing to theElectronic supplementary materialThe online version of thisarticle (doi:10.1007/s00425-014-2239-3) contains supplementarymaterial, which is available to authorized users.