Psy109_Intelligence_April2016 - Theories of Intelligence...

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Theories of Intelligence Definition/s? Theories Measurement
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Intelligence: Lay Definitions Is there indeed a general mental ability we commonly call "intelligence? If YES, is it important in the practical affairs of life? How would you know that someone is intelligent? What are the characteristics or behaviors that YOU associate with intelligence?
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Classic Definitions Spearman (1904) A general ability which involves mainly the eduction of relations and correlates Binet & Simon (1905) The ability to judge well, to understand well, to reason well Terman (1916) The capacity to form concepts and grasp their significance Thurstone (1921) The capacity to inhibit instinctive adjustments, flexibly imagine different responses, and realize modified instinctive adjustments into overt behaviour
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Definitions cont’d Wechsler (1939) the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment Sternberg (1985) the mental capacity to automatize information processing and to emit contextually appropriate behaviour in response to novelty; intelligence also includes metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components Gardner (1986) the ability or skill to solve problems or to fashion products which are valued within one or
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Intelligence: Definition Intelligence mental abilities involves ability to: learn from experience solve problems reason effectively meet challenges and achieve goals adapt to new situations
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Theories of Intelligence
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The “ g ” factor AKA the general intelligence , general mental ability , general intelligence factor Charles Spearman realised that people who excelled in one area also tended to do well in other areas
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The “ g ” factor Using factor analysis, found that scores on all mental tests (regardless of the domain or how it was tested) tend to load on one major factor ( g ” factor )
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The “ g ” factor Spearman proposed that intelligence consisted of 2 kinds of factors: a single “general” factor, g , and numerous specific factors ( s factors ). The g factor refers to the broad mental capacity that influences performance on cognitive ability measures g factor was the most important
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The “ g ” factor Characteristics of ‘ g ’ Factor: Is universal inborn ability Is general mental energy Is constant The amount of ‘ g ’ differs from individual to individual Used in every activity of life Greater the ‘ g ’ in an individual, greater is his success in life.
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s factor s factor s were very specific to particular tests
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