Psychology Notes - 091215 - Psychology Notes Human...

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Psychology Notes-Human Development oThe multidisciplinary of how people change and how they remain the same over time-Three fundamental characteristics of human development: nature and nurture, continuity and discontinuity, and universal and context-specific development. oNature and Nurture = the degree to which genetic or hereditary influences (nature) and experimental or environmental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person you areThe key point is always shaped by both: nature and nurture are mutually interactive influences. oContinuity and discontinuity = concerns whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span (continuity) or aseries of abrupt shifts (discontinuity). oUniversal and context-specific development = concerns whether there is one path of development or several.-Basic forces in Human Development: The Biopsychosocial FrameworkoBiological Forces = genetic and health-related factors that affect developmentoPsychological forces = Internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect developmentoSociocultural Forces = interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors that affect developmentoLife-Cycle Forces = reflects differences in how the same events affects people of differentages-Biopsychosocial framework oBiological forces -> sociocultural forces -> psychological forces -> Life cycle forces-Biological forces can be viewed as the genetics of the human nature-Psychological forces are all the internal cognitive, emotional, personality, perpetual, and related factors that influence behavior-Neuroscience = the study of the brain and nervous system, especially in terms of brain-behavior relationship-Theory = the organized set that is designed to explain development-Psychodynamic theories = theories proposing that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages oPsychosocial Theory = Erikson’s proposal that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demandsoEpigenetic principle = in Erikson’s theory, he idea that each psychosocial strength has its own special period of particular importanceo**8 Stages of Psychosocial development in Erikson’s theory
oOperant conditioning = learning paradigm in which the consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeatedoReinforcement = a consequence that increases the likelihood of the behavior that it followsoPunishment = a consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior that it followsoImitation or observational learning = learning that occurs by simply watching how othersbehaveoSelf-efficacy = people’s belief about their own abilities and talents-Cognitive-Developmental Theory = the key is how people think and how thinking changes over timeoPiaget’s four stages of cognitive development

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