History Notes semester 2 freshman - Eddie Mattout History...

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Eddie Mattout History Semester 2 233- 237 Muslims The cultures of Arabian Peninsula were in a constant contact with each other. Goods were traded and new ideas were shared. One of these ideas was the religion of Islam. Geography A. The Arabian Peninsula is a cross road between 3 countries- Africa, Europe, Asia. B. Very few spots have arable land. C. Mostly desert inhabited by nomadic Arab herders. D. Had a few oases Desert and Town Life A. On the desert, the nomads- called Bedouins were organized into tribes and groups called clans . B. These clans provided security and support for a life made difficult by the extreme conditions of desert. 1. The tribesmen took pride in their ability to adapt to desert conditions and to defend themselves against invading tribes. C. Because of these fighting abilities they created the core of the army who would build a large empire. D. Bedouin ideals of : courage and loyalty to family, along with warrior skills would become part of the Islamic way of life. E. In the 600s the villages with oases were able to support agriculture and people started settling there. These people left the Bedouin way of life and became market towns which were centers of trade. Crossroads of Trade and Ideas A. By the early 600s trade routes connected Arabia to the major ocean and land routes. B. These routes moved from the south of the peninsula to the Byzantine and Sassanid empires to the north. C. These empires traded on the caravan routes and silk roads and transported goods all over the place. D. The city of Mecca became an important stop on the trade routes. E. In Mecca during certain “holy months” religious pilgrims came to worship in ancient shrine in Mecca. F. Mecca had a simple house of worship called Ka’aba. – The Arabs associated this house of worship with Abraham. Ka’aba contained over 300 idols and many people traveled to this site as pilgrimage. G. Allah- belief in one god was familiar to the peninsula. A group of people called Hanifs were monotheists. H. There were also Jews and Christians who were monotheists in the peninsula. Muhammad
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A. Muhammad was born in Mecca into this city of mixed culture and religions. B. He was born into a powerful Meccan tribe and was born an orphan- he was raised by his uncle and grandfather. C. He grew up to be a big business man and married Khadija a big business women. Revelations A. Muhammad took great time of interest in religion and spent time alone meditating. B. When he was 40 the angel of Gabriel came to speak to him (according to Muslims) and told him he was messenger of god. C. Muhammad believed the god who spoke to him was Allah . D. He also believed he was the last of all prophets. E. He taught that Allah was the only god and all other gods should be abandoned. People who agreed with this basic principle of Islam were called Muslims.
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