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Ch4_Chemistry%20of%20Carbon - because the COOH group can...

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1 Chapter 4 • C, H, O, and N can combine in many ways • Vitalism • Hydrocarbons • Isomers – Structural, geometric, enantiomeric – Rings (often not isomers at all)
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2 Functional groups contribute to the molecular diversity of life 6 groups are of primary value in biochemistry All are hydrophilic, and therefore increase the solubility of organic compounds in water. Functional groups • Hydroxyl, sulfhydryl •Am ino • Carbonyl – Ketones – Aldehydes • Carboxyl • Phosphate The basic structure of testosterone (male hormone) and estradiol (female hormone) is identical. the hydroxyl group (-OH) Organic compounds with hydroxyl groups are alcohols and their names typically end in -ol. CH 3 OH methyl alcohol,methanol CH 3 CH 2 OH ethyl alcohol, ethanol C C H H H H H H O the carbonyl group (C=O) Aldehyde: carbonyl group on the end Ketone: carbonyl group between two C atoms Isomeric aldehydes and ketones have very different properties. the carboxyl group (-COOH)
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Unformatted text preview: because the COOH group can dissociate a proton. 3 the amino group (-NH 2 ) Organic compounds with amino groups are amines . – The amino group acts as a base because ammonia can pick up a hydrogen ion (H + ) from the solution. – Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have both amino and carboxyl groups. • the sulfhydryl group (-SH) consists of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. – This group resembles a hydroxyl group in shape and chemical properties. – Sulfhydryl groups are also called thiols . – Sulfhydryl groups help stabilize the structure of proteins. the phosphate group (-OPO 3 2-) A phosphate group connects to the carbon backbone via one (or more) of its oxygen atoms. – Phosphate groups are negatively charged, since protons usually dissociate from the oxygen atoms. – One function (of many) of phosphate groups is to transfer energy between organic molecules. And on to chapter 5....
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