Ch4_Chemistry%20of%20Carbon

Ch4_Chemistry%20of%20Carbon - because the COOH group can...

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1 Chapter 4 • C, H, O, and N can combine in many ways • Vitalism • Hydrocarbons • Isomers – Structural, geometric, enantiomeric – Rings (often not isomers at all)
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2 Functional groups contribute to the molecular diversity of life 6 groups are of primary value in biochemistry All are hydrophilic, and therefore increase the solubility of organic compounds in water. Functional groups • Hydroxyl, sulfhydryl •Am ino • Carbonyl – Ketones – Aldehydes • Carboxyl • Phosphate The basic structure of testosterone (male hormone) and estradiol (female hormone) is identical. the hydroxyl group (-OH) Organic compounds with hydroxyl groups are alcohols and their names typically end in -ol. CH 3 OH methyl alcohol,methanol CH 3 CH 2 OH ethyl alcohol, ethanol C C H H H H H H O the carbonyl group (C=O) Aldehyde: carbonyl group on the end Ketone: carbonyl group between two C atoms Isomeric aldehydes and ketones have very different properties. the carboxyl group (-COOH)
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Unformatted text preview: because the COOH group can dissociate a proton. 3 the amino group (-NH 2 ) Organic compounds with amino groups are amines . The amino group acts as a base because ammonia can pick up a hydrogen ion (H + ) from the solution. Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have both amino and carboxyl groups. the sulfhydryl group (-SH) consists of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. This group resembles a hydroxyl group in shape and chemical properties. Sulfhydryl groups are also called thiols . Sulfhydryl groups help stabilize the structure of proteins. the phosphate group (-OPO 3 2-) A phosphate group connects to the carbon backbone via one (or more) of its oxygen atoms. Phosphate groups are negatively charged, since protons usually dissociate from the oxygen atoms. One function (of many) of phosphate groups is to transfer energy between organic molecules. And on to chapter 5....
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2008 for the course BISC 220L taught by Professor Herrera,mcclure during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Ch4_Chemistry%20of%20Carbon - because the COOH group can...

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