Study Guide - exam 1 - Study Guide Exam 1 13th Amendment...

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Study Guide – Exam 113th Amendment(1865) – abolished slavery everywherePresidential ReconstructionLincoln:oEnded Civil War, slaveryoGave grace to desertersoProclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863: mid-war. War 1865) (p. 543)Any confederate state could form a new government and be restored to the union when ten percent voted in 1860 in allegiance to union (extremely lenient)High-ranking confederate officials were the exception and couldn’tAndrew Johnson:oLincoln’s second vice presidentoPro-Union Democrat (thought seceding was a mistake)oFrom Tennessee, which was a divided stateoWas a Yomen: owned slaves, but also worked; often owned less than ten slaves; contrast with Planners who had much greed and controloAt first, Republicans support himoProclamation of Amnesty (1865) (p. 545)Offered amnesty to southerners who swore allegiance to unionExcluded southern officials and elite (exceptions only by personal presidential pardon)Temporary governors would be hand-picked by JohnsonResulted in Johnson being overworked and most everyone pardonedCongressional/Radical ReconstructionCongress consisted of:oMajority simply didn’t want slavery to spreadoRadical Republicans: small percent who were completely against slaveryCongress was motivated to act because:oPresidential pardoning system was utterly ineffectiveoBlack Codes: state statutes that emerged from the southern states one to two years after the war ended in 1865 to control the black population (p. 546)Varied from state to stateComponents of slavery were being restored in another guise:Few states allowed black jurorsUnemployed blacks were often arrested, fined, then forced to labor in the fields to pay the courtoJohnson’s disregard for Congress: (p. 548)Vetoed Civil Rights Bill
Vetoed renewal of Freedmen’s Bureau: 19thcentury “Red Cross” – a federal institution established in 1865 and designed to assist in welfare and counsel (p. 542)Congressional Reconstruction begins:oLed by RadicalsoPhysical reconstruction in the south and increase of northerner presence; public schools for blacks, though separateo14thamendment (1866): Due Process and Equal Protection Law – defined citizenship, regardless of raceoReconstruction Act (1867) (p. 550-551)South is divided into 5 military districts with union presence everywhereNew state governments with black men voting o15thamendment (1869): “Men’s suffrage” – allowed black men to voteCompromise of 1877(p. 567) – presidential election of 1876 (after Grant): very close race between Republican candidate Hayes and Democrat candidate Tilden. Tilden won the popular vote, but there were doubts about Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida in electoral votes.

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Civil Rights, 13th Amendment, Civil War, Reconstruction, Southern United States, Reconstruction era of the United States, new south creed

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