8IDs - EASC 150 IDs 17-19 21-23 28 and 34 17 Gang of Four A...

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EASC 150 IDs 17-19, 21-23, 28, and 34 17) Gang of Four A group of Communist Party of China leaders in the People's Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong , and were primarily blamed for the events of the Cultural Revolution . The group consisted of Mao's widow Jiang Qing and three of her close associates, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. As the Cultural Revolution intensified, the members of the Gang of Four advanced to high positions in the government and the Communist Party. Manipulating the youthful Red Guards, the Gang of Four controlled four areas: intellectual education, basic theories in science and technology, teacher-student relations and school discipline, and party policies regarding intellectuals. Attempted to dominate the power center through their network of supporters and, most important, through their control of the media. A power struggle occurred between the Gang of Four and the alliance of Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai, and Ye Jianying. On 6 October 1976, Hua Guofeng, who succeeded Mao as chairman of the Communist party, had the four leading radicals and a number of their lesser associates arrested. Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao received death sentences that were later commuted to life imprisonment, while Wang Hongwen and Yao Wenyuan were given lifetime and twenty years in prison, respectively. They were all released later. All members of the "Gang of Four" have since died 18) Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party, also called the KMT) The Kuomintang was founded in Guangdong Province on August 25, 1912 from a collection of several revolutionary groups that had successfully overthrown the Qing Dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution. Its founders were Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen. o Three Principles of the People - nationalism, democracy, and people's livelihood. Developed by Sun Yat-Sen. In 1923, the KMT and its government accepted aid from the Soviet Union in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.   The First United Front was begun in 1924. In return for Soviet military and organizational aid, Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the KMT, agreed to a “bloc within” alliance in which CCP members joined the KMT as individuals while retaining their separate CCP memberships. Sun Yat-sen died on 12th March 1925. After a struggle with Wang Ching-Wei, Chiang Kai-Shek eventually emerged as the leader of the Kuomintang. He now carried out a purge that eliminated the communists from the organization. The Communists were forced to withdraw from their bases in southern and central China into the mountains in a massive military retreat known famously as the Long March, an undertaking which would eventually increase their reputation
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EASC 150 among the peasants (they were kind, paid for food, etc). The Kuomintang continued to attack the Communists. In 1928 the reformed Kuomintang captured Beijing and was able to establish a
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2008 for the course EASC 150g taught by Professor Rosen during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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8IDs - EASC 150 IDs 17-19 21-23 28 and 34 17 Gang of Four A...

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