IDs 17-19, 21-23, 28, and 34
17) Gang of Four
A group of
Communist Party of China
leaders in the
People's Republic of China
who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death
, and were primarily blamed for the events of the
The group consisted of Mao's widow Jiang Qing and three of her close associates,
Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen.
As the Cultural Revolution intensified, the members of the Gang of Four
advanced to high positions in the government and the Communist Party.
Manipulating the youthful Red Guards, the Gang of Four controlled four areas:
intellectual education, basic theories in science and technology, teacher-student
relations and school discipline, and party policies regarding intellectuals.
Attempted to dominate the power center through their network of supporters and,
most important, through their control of the media.
A power struggle occurred between the Gang of Four and the alliance of Deng
Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai, and Ye Jianying. On 6 October 1976, Hua Guofeng, who
succeeded Mao as chairman of the Communist party, had the four leading radicals
and a number of their lesser associates arrested.
Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao received death sentences that were later
commuted to life imprisonment, while Wang Hongwen and Yao Wenyuan were
given lifetime and twenty years in prison, respectively. They were all released
later. All members of the "Gang of Four" have since died
18) Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party, also called the KMT)
The Kuomintang was founded in Guangdong Province on August 25, 1912 from a
collection of several revolutionary groups that had successfully overthrown the
Qing Dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution. Its founders were Song Jiaoren and Sun
Three Principles of the People - nationalism, democracy, and people's
livelihood. Developed by Sun Yat-Sen.
In 1923, the KMT and its government accepted aid from the Soviet Union in the
reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist
Party of the Soviet Union.
The First United Front was begun in 1924. In return for
Soviet military and organizational aid, Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the KMT,
agreed to a “bloc within” alliance in which CCP members joined the KMT as
individuals while retaining their separate CCP memberships.
died on 12th March 1925. After a struggle with Wang Ching-Wei,
eventually emerged as the leader of the Kuomintang. He now
carried out a purge that eliminated the communists from the organization. The
Communists were forced to withdraw from their bases in southern and central
China into the mountains in a massive military retreat known famously as the
Long March, an undertaking which would eventually increase their reputation