design - ECE 4500 OPTICAL ENGINEERING INSTRUCTIONS FOR...

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Unformatted text preview: ECE 4500 OPTICAL ENGINEERING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING DESIGN STUDY PAPERS PERSPECTIVE The purpose of assigning this design study paper is to provide practical experience in the design of some useful optical device or optical system. This paper should be an engineering design study as opposed to a science report. For example, the title of a science report might be “The Pockels Electro—Optic Effect" and it would likely contain a detailed description of this physical effect. By contrast, the title of a related engineering design study might be “The Design of a lOGb/sec Electro-Optic Modulator.” This engineering design study report should contain relevant information about the physical effects as well as information on the optical, mechanical, and electrical design and performance of this type of modulator. The subject of the design paper should be an approved topic within the general subject of optical engineering. The subject must not be the same as any topic that you have previously used or are currently using for a report. The design study paper must be written in your own words. Example topics and initial references are provided separately. This design study paper should be written as though your employer has requested it. Assume that your supervisor has asked you to investigate and to report in writing on the design of some optical device or optical system of current interest to the company. Real engineering trade—offs need to be identified and engineering decisions need to be delineated, discussed, and made. In general, the more design content there is in the paper, the higher the resulting grade assigned. The design study should reflect the current understanding relative to your topic and include references to the most recent published work in your topic area. TITLE PAGE The title page should provide the course number, course title, the title of your design study, the abstract, your name, and the date. At the bottom of the title page, the following statement must be included: “The subject area of this design study paper is not the same as that of any report that I have previously used or am currently using. This work is solely my own.” followed by a place for your signature. All submitted reports must include the author's signature following this statement. AB S TRACT Each paper should have an abstract of about 200 words in length on the second page of the report. This section should state concisely the optical device or optical system that has been investigated and the design results that have been obtained. TABLE OF CONTENTS There should be a table of contents listing all major headings. This should appear below the abstract on the second page of the report. INTRODUCTION This section should be at the start of the third page of the report and should contain information about why this particular optical device or optical system is important and a summary of past design work in this area. In short, this part of the paper gives the background and motivation for this work. MAIN SECTIONS These sections make up the body of the paper. Material drawn from books and periodicals must be referenced. This means that most all of the paper will contain references. Direct verbatim material may be taken from references but must be enclosed in quotation marks and referenced. Figures should all be numbered and have captions. Figures may be reproduced from articles and books but the figure caption must end with an appropriate parenthetical reference such as (from reference [4]). Tables likewise should be numbered, have title headings, and be referenced. Figures and tables should be integrated in with the text near the point where they are first cited. Use subsection and sub-subsection headings as needed. REFERENCE CITATIONS Reference citations should appear throughout the paper. Each major concept or result should be referenced. Citation numbers should be enclosed in square brackets (such as [5]). SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS After the body of the paper, there should be a “Summary” or a “Conclusion” section. This section should briefly restate the optical device or optical system that has been investigated and the design results that have been obtained. REFERENCES References should be numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the paper. A listing of the references should appear on separate pages at the end of the paper and each reference should only be listed once. References should be taken from original sources and not taken second—hand from review articles, books, etc. The most recent references relating to the chosen topic should very definitely be listed and used. Use IEEE standard form for all references. List the names of all authors in the reference as opposed to using the first author's name and et al. APPENDICES Include as an “Appendix” material which is peripheral to the main body of the paper, such as the mathematical derivation of an equation, etc. OTHER READINGS All references that are found relating to the paper topic but not cited in “References” should be listed. If the article is of a general nature and not specifically used in the “References” section, then it should be listed in a separate “Other Readings” section. FORMAT INFORMATION The design study paper should be highly legible and on 8 1/2" x 11" white paper. Pages should be numbered. Equations should be designated by a number enclosed in parentheses at the right—hand margin of paper. All symbols used should be explained in the paper. The design study paper should be single spaced (about 6 lines per inch vertically) and the type should be approximately a 12—point font. There should be approximately 1” to l 1/2” margins on right, left, top, and bottom. As an example, these instructions are printed conforming to these specifications. The pages should be stapled together with a single staple in the upper left corner. Do not put the design study paper in any kind of binder. Use the abbreviations "Fig." and "Figs." within sentences for the words figure and figures. Use "Figure" or "Figures" if they occur as the first words of a sentence. Likewise, use the abbreviations "Eq." and "Eqs." in the text for the words equation and equations and "Equation" and "Equations" at the beginning of a sentence. Similarly use "Sec." and "Secs." in the text for the words section and sections and "Section" and "Sections" at the start of a sentence. LENGTH OF DESIGN STUDY PAPER The body of the design study paper should be about 8 single-space pages in length. This does not include the title page, abstract, table of contents, equations, figures, tables, and appendices. DATE DUE The design study paper is due at the beginning of class on the Monday of the last week of classes. ADDITIONAL RULES 1. The design study paper should be on the design of one well—defined optical device or optical system. 2. The text material in each section should be as specific as possible. Do not use vague terminology. Say exactly what was done and why it is important. For example: Wrong: "A novel tuning system for a laser is described." Correct: "An electro-optic tunable filter consisting of a series of birefringent plates between crossed polarizers is described." Wrong: "A broadband acousto-optic modulator is described." Correct: "A 1 GHz acousto—optic amplitude modulator is described." Correct: "Experimental methods are described for (two-beam) holographic exposure of photoresist on GaAs, followed by development, and ion—beam (or chemical) etching to produce gratings with a period of 0.35 microns to serve as third—order diffraction gratings for distributed feedback and distributed Bragg reflector lasers." Correct: "A Rhodamine dye solution was illuminated with the interference pattern produced by intersecting two laser beams of 0.347 micron wavelength. The resulting periodic gain produced the active medium and the distributed feedback for the laser. By varying the angle between the laser pumping beams, the period of the gain grating was varied and thus the output wavelength was tuned (570 nm to 640 nm). Output linewidths as small as 0.001 nm were measured." 3. It is not acceptable to introduce a quantity and explain it later in the paper. Each quantity must be explained at its first introduction. If absolutely necessary, one can state "as defined below" to let the reader know that the definition is given below. If a reader encounters a quantity or symbol that has not been defined, they may believe that they missed the definition and will go back and read the preceding material again searching for the definition that they missed. This is a terrible waste of their time and degrades the value of the design study paper. 4. Label completely the axes of all graphs using format: "name of quantity, symbol for quantity (units)." For example, axes might be labeled Angle of Incidence, 9 (degrees) Diffraction Efficiency, 1] (%) Lifetime, T (usec) This should be done even if the original author did not include this information. Use the "most standard" name, symbol, and units for the quantity. Throughout the design study paper, use only the "most standard" name, symbol, and units. 5. Be sure that names and symbols of quantities used in the text are the same as names and symbols used in figures, tables, and equations. 6. Modify existing published figures as needed. For example, change the notation to be the "most standard," eliminate curves that do not relate to your presentation. Add labels to figures as needed. Change captions (typically expand) to make them more explanatory. 7. When describing a device, a technique, or a system, you must include information on the system performance. 8. Do not define new acronyms. Use only existing published acronyms. Acronyms must be spelled out at the location where they first appear with the acronym following in parentheses. For example, "forward—looking infrared (FLIR)." The acronym may then be used in subsequent material without further definition. 9. Be sure that lettering in figures, tables, and equations is not too small or too faint and that all lettering is readable! Check figures that have been “scanned—in” to be sure they are clear and legible. 10. Have someone else read your design study paper before you submit it. Without prompting them, have them explain the significant points to you. If they don't understand the significance, you probably need to improve your written presentation. This is the best way to be sure you have included all needed material and that you have been clear. 11. Excellent general references on writing, grammar, and presentation are as follows: M. Harris, Prentice Hall Reference Guide to Grammar and Usage with Exercises (3rd edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1997. F. C. Watkins and W. B. Dillingham, Practical English Handbook (tenth edition). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1996. M. Markel, Technical Communications (5th edition). New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. 12. Design study papers will be kept on file. They will not be returned. Reports may be shown to prospective employers as examples of work completed. EXAMPLE SENTENCES Some good example sentences written by students and explaining significance are as follows: "A new type of laser beam scanner was constructed using multiple optically generated holograms (OGH)." "A capability for performing high-speed/high-accuracy matrix—vector multiplications was developed via design of a multichannel acousto-optic convolver which functioned as a systolic array processor." "The most significant drawback in using LiNb03 to construct modulators is ‘optical damage’ and its decollimating effect on the modulated light. In recent work, this problem has been eliminated by heating the LiNbO3 crystal to about 200°C." "It was demonstrated how a TAOF could be used for the detection of a weak laser beam (e.g. 5 x 10'7 mW) in the presence of incoherent background radiation (IBR) (e.g. 0.012 mW). An example of an ambiguous sentence written by a student is as follows: "Based on the concept of acousto-optic diffraction in an anisotropic medium, Harris demonstrated the operation of the first Tunable Acousto-Optic Filter (TAOF) using LiNbO3 as a filter material." Was it the global first operation of a tunable acousto-optic filter or the first TAOF in lithium niobate? SUGGESTED APPROACHES Based on your own interests, you should select two or three potential design study areas. It is essential to find background information on these areas in order to determine which should be selected as the topic area for your design study paper. This background information typically comes from trade journal articles, from review papers, and from books. When a topic area is selected, this information will be needed to provide background and motivation in the “Introduction” section as well as information for the body of the paper. To obtain the recent references on the design study area, several approaches may be used. These include the following: (1) Starting with what appears to be a fundamental recent paper in the field, use the references in this article to find review papers and books that will give an overview of the subject. Papers that have a large number of pages often have a significant amount of review content. (2) Use the on—line INSPEC data base to find papers and review papers related to your design study. (3) Starting with what appears to be a fundamental but older paper in the field, use the Science Citation Index (available on—line) to find recent papers, review papers, and books that describe this area. TKG / Revised 11-08—00 ...
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design - ECE 4500 OPTICAL ENGINEERING INSTRUCTIONS FOR...

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