Environmental diseases 1 - Environmental diseases Refers to...

This preview shows page 1 - 12 out of 61 pages.

Environmental diseasesRefers to diseases caused byChemical or physicalagentsClassification:1.Personal exposures2.Therapeutic drugs3.Outdoor air pollution4.Indoor air pollution5.Industrial exposures6.Agricultural hazards7.Natural toxins8.Radiation injury9.Physical environment-Ambient-Workplace-Personal Environment
Personal exposures1.Tobacco use2.Alcohol abuse3.Drug abuse
Tobacco useThedifferent formsof tobacco useCigarettesSnuffCigarsPipesChewing
SmokingEpidemiologyMCC ofpremature deathin the US.Accounts for ~20% of all deathsMC singlepreventable cause ofcancer (USMLE)Percentage of US population thatsmokes:~25%Incidence of smoking isincreasing infemales anddecreasing inmales
Major Components of CigaretteSmokeCarbon monoxidedamages endotheliumpredisposes toatherosclerosisCarcinogenspolycylic hydrocarbons, benzopyrene,nitrosamines, vinyl chloride, hydrazineChemical irritants/cilia toxinsammonia, formaldehydeimpaired tracheobronchial clearanceIncreased susceptibility to pneumoniaNicotine
NicotineAlkaloid ; Addicting agentMOA (Mechanism of Action):Absorbed rapidly into thepulmonary circulationCrossesthe BBB and stimulatesnicotinic receptorsin the brain toproduce thegratifying effects.Acute pharmacologic effects aremediated bycatecholamine releaseincreased heart rate and bloodpressure.
Test used to document nicotineintake (USMLE)Plasma or urine level ofcotinineCotinineis derived from metabolismof nicotine.
Smoking and diseasesNonneoplasticdiseasesNeoplasticdiseases
Nonneoplastic diseasesPulmonaryCOPDChronic bronchitis and emphysemaRecurrent infectionsPneumoniaCardiovascular systemAcute MIPeripheral vascular diseaseGastrointestinal tractGERDGastric and duodenal ulcers (delay inhealing)
Nonneoplastic diseasesEffect on pregnant womenIUGR(Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation)risk of spontaneous abortions andstillbirthsAbruptio placenta, Placenta previa ,PROMEffect on womenEarly menopauserate of postmenopausal osteoporosisEffect on childrenrisk of SIDS(Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)incidence of ASOM(Acute Suppurative OtitisMedia)and URTIrisk of asthma
Neoplastic diseasesSmokingassociated with30%of all cancer deathsCancers where smoking is the leading cause(P53mutation):Lung cancerSquamous cell carcinoma and small cellcarcinoma have the highest relationship tosmokingAdenocarcinoma to a lesser extentMCC of death due to cancer in both womenand men.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 61 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Spring
Professor
Denslow
Tags
Usmle, ethyl alcohol

Newly Uploaded Documents

Show More

Newly Uploaded Documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture