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Unformatted text preview: IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 13, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2005 1003 Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport in Wireless Sensor Networks zgr B. Akan , Member, IEEE, and Ian F. Akyildiz , Fellow, IEEE Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are event-based systems that rely on the collective effort of several microsensor nodes. Reliable event detection at the sink is based on collective information provided by source nodes and not on any individual report. However, conventional end-to-end reliability definitions and solutions are inapplicable in the WSN regime and would only lead to a waste of scarce sensor resources. Hence, the WSN paradigm necessitates a collective event-to-sink reliability notion rather than the traditional end-to-end notion. To the best of our knowledge, reliable transport in WSN has not been studied from this perspective before. In order to address this need, a new reliable transport scheme for WSN, the event-to-sink reliable transport (ESRT) protocol, is presented in this paper. ESRT is a novel transport solution devel- oped to achieve reliable event detection in WSN with minimum en- ergy expenditure. It includes a congestion control component that serves the dual purpose of achieving reliability and conserving en- ergy. Importantly, the algorithms of ESRT mainly run on the sink, with minimal functionality required at resource constrained sensor nodes. ESRT protocol operation is determined by the current net- work state based on the reliability achieved and congestion condi- tion in the network. This self-configuring nature of ESRT makes it robust to random, dynamic topology in WSN. Furthermore, ESRT can also accommodate multiple concurrent event occurrences in a wireless sensor field. Analytical performance evaluation and sim- ulation results show that ESRT converges to the desired reliability with minimum energy expenditure, starting from any initial net- work state. Index Terms Congestion control, energy conservation, event-to-sink reliability, reliable transport protocols, wireless sensor networks. I. INTRODUCTION T HE Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an event-driven paradigm that relies on the collective effort of numerous microsensor nodes. This has several advantages over traditional sensing including greater accuracy, larger coverage area and ex- traction of localized features. In order to realize these poten- tial gains, it is imperative that desired event features are reliably communicated to the sink. Manuscript received August 20, 2003; revised June 17, 2004, and October 12, 2004; approved by IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING Editor N. Shroff. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Contract ECS-0225497. An earlier version of this paper appeared in the Proceedings of the ACM MOBIHOC 2003 , Annapolis, MD, June 2003....
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