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lower extremity anatomy lecture notes - I A REVIEW OF...

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- 1 - I. REVIEW OF ANATOMICAL TERMS A. Anatomical Position - All anatomical descriptions are based on the anatomical position. This is the position whereby the body is in the erect standing posture, with the head, eyes and toes directed anteriorly. The upper extremities are by the side of the torso and held so that the palms face anteriorly. The lower extremities are positioned with the thighs and legs extended, the foot at a right angle to the leg, the heels touching posteriorly, and the great toes touching anteriorly. B. Definition Of The Lower Extremity - The lower extremity is specialized for weightbearing and locomotion. The lower extremity consists of four major parts: (1) the pelvic component formed by the os coxa, which connects the lower limb to the axial skeleton; (2) the thigh component formed by the femur, which connects to the pelvis at the hip joint and to the leg at the knee joint and articulates with the patella; (3) the leg component formed by the tibia and fibula, which connect to the femur at the knee joint and to the bones of the foot at the ankle joint; (4) the foot component formed by the tarsal, metatarsal, phalangeal and sesamoid bones, which connect to the tibia and fibula at the ankle joint and form the terminal portion of the lower extremity. C. Terms Related To Anatomical Position 1. Reference Planes a. Median Plane (Midsagittal) - A vertical plane that passes longitudinally through the body and divides it into right and left halves (remember that the halves are not equal, especially in visceral content). b. c. Sagittal Plane (Paramedian) - Any vertical plane that is parallel to the median plane. d. Frontal Plane (Coronal) - Any vertical plane that is at a right angle to the median plane. It separates the body into anterior and posterior portions. e. Transverse Plane (Horizontal) - A plane that is at right angles to both the median and frontal planes. It separates the body into superior and inferior portions. 2. Descriptive Terms a. Medial (Tibial) - Medial means nearer to or toward the median plane (midline of the body). b. Lateral (Fibular or Peroneal) - Lateral means farther from or away from the median plane (midline of the body). Example : The big toe is medial to the second toe and the little toe is lateral to the fourth toe. c. Intermediate - Intermediate is used for a structure that is lying between two structures, one of which is medial and the other lateral, or one of which is superficial and the other deep. d. Anterior (Ventral) - Anterior means nearer to the front of the body.
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- 2 - e. Posterior (Dorsal) - Posterior means nearer to the back of the body. f. Proximal - Proximal is used primarily in the limbs and means nearer to the attachment of the limb to the torso. g. Distal - Distal is used primarily in the limbs and means farther from the attachment of the limb to the torso.
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