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respstudyguide - BIOLOGY 238 Study Guide Respiration 1...

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BIOLOGY 238 Study Guide Respiration 1. Define and differentiate between Ventilation - the exchange of respiratory gases (O 2 and CO 2 ) between the atmosphere and the lungs. This involves gas pressures and muscle contractions External respiration - the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood. This involves partial pressures of gases, diffusion, and the chemical reactions involved in transport of O 2 and CO 2 . Internal respiration - the exchange of gases between the blood and the systemic tissues. This involves the same processes as external respiration. Cellular respiration - the includes the metabolic pathways which utilize oxygen and produce carbon dioxide, which will not be included in this unit. 2. Identify the location, function, and structural characteristics of the following: nasal cavity- between nares and nasopharynx moisten, humidify, filter, houses olfactory receptors pseudostratified ciliated comumnar epithelium, goblet cells, serous glands lysozyme-antibacterial enzyme defensisns-natural antibiotics external and internal nares- nostrils, air passes through ethmoid bone- roof of nasal cavity nasal septum- divides the nasal cavity into two perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone- posterior barrier of nasal cavity vomer- posterior barrier to nasal cavity palatine bone- hard palate hard and soft palates- floor of nasal cavity conchae- protruding medially from lateral walls, three scroll like mocosa covered projections. Greatly increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air and enhance air turbulence in the cavity. A filter Vibrissae- hairs in the nose, filter course particles from inhaled air paranasal sinuses- located in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxilary bones, lighten the skull and help to warm and moisten the air, produce mucus. mucosa (nasal, olfactory, respiratory)- olfactory - slit like superior region of nasal cavity=smell receptors respiratory mucosa- balance of the nasal cavity= pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium, goblet cells (mucous and serous glands) lysozyme and defensin. Pharynx- throat Nasopharynx- nasal aperture-soft palate, air only, PCCE Oropharynx- soft palate-epiglottis, stratified squamous epithelium
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Laryngopharynx- epiglottis-divergence of resp and digestive pathways (larynx), SSE pharyngeal tonsils- (adenoids ) back of nasopharynx, traps and destroys pathogens entering the nasopharynx. lingual tonsils- base of the tongue palatine tonsils- in lateral walls of the fauces (hole into throat) eustachian canals- pharyngotympanic tube orinternal auditory canal). This canal allows equalization of pressure between the atmosphere and the
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