psyc 100 chapter 16 last 4 slides

psyc 100 chapter 16 last 4 slides - ß a high current is...

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Evaluation of Pharmacotherapy Evaluation of Pharmacotherapy ± Drug therapies for SZ, depression, and anxiety are effective for many patients ß focus is on long-term treatment (years) ± Primary issues are side effects and the high relapse rate when the drugs are stopped ß continued use of certain drugs (e.g., antidepressants) can minimize relapse ß another way to minimize relapse is to combine medication with psychotherapy , which can be effective in the treatment of many disorders including major depression, bipolar disorder, and SZ Antidepressant Medications Antidepressant Medications and Relapse Rates and Relapse Rates • Virtually all untreated patients relapsed within three years • Medication clearly was helpful, although 46% nevertheless relapsed by five years Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy ± Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT): used in the treatment of severe depression ß electrodes are taped to either side of the patient s head and the patient is anesthetized
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Unformatted text preview: ß a high current is passed through the brain for a half second, followed by convulsions lasting almost 1 minute ß ECT produces immediate improvement in mood • it may affect levels of norepinephrine in the brain, but we don ’ t know for sure because shock has many effects ß The main side effect of ECT is memory loss Psychosurgery Psychosurgery ± Psychosurgery : brain surgery to reduce psychological symptoms and alter behavior ß contrasted with neurosurgery , which refers to alteration of the brain to treat a known medical condition (e.g., remove a tumor or a blood clot) ± Lobotomy : removal of cerebral tissue, usually in the frontal lobe ß previously used to “calm” agitated patients ß resulted in significant side effects (e.g., apathy, loss of self-control, loss of ability to think abstractly) ß currently, it is being used to treat severely debilitating cases of OCD that do not respond to other forms of treatment...
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