Test 1 Study Guide

Test 1 Study Guide - 1. Agendas (Kingdon) The agenda is the...

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1. Agendas (Kingdon) • The agenda is the list of subject or problems to which governmental officials, and people outside of government closely associated with those officials, are paying some serious attention at any given time. Within any given time period there is an enormous list of problems and subjects that would effectively over-encumber a state if they undertook them all. But through the agenda-setting process this list is narrowed to a smaller set that actually becomes the focus of attention (p.3) • Some items may not rise up on the agenda due to financial pressures, lack of acceptance by the public, powerful opposition interests, or they are simply less pressing then other items in the competition for attention (p.18) 2. Governmental Agenda (Kingdon) • Governmental Agenda is the list of subjects to which governmental officials and those around them are paying serious attention (p.3). • This list varies from one part of the government to another. For instance, the president and his closest advisers have their agenda which consists of international crises, major legislative initiatives, the state of economy etc. And then there are specialized agendas which focus on the issues that arise in one area such as Transportation or Healthcare (p.3). • The chances for a problem to rise on the governmental agenda increase if a solution is attached to the problem (p.142). 3. Decision Agenda (Kingdon) • Decision Agenda is the list of subjects within the governmental agenda that are up for an active decision such as legislative enactment or presidential action (p.4). • The chances for a problem to rise on the decision agenda are dramatically increased if a solution is attached (p.142). • The probability of an item rising on the decision agenda is dramatically increased if all three streams—problems, policies, and politics—are joined. None of the streams are sufficient by themselves to place an item firmly on the decision agenda (p.178) 4. Agenda v. Alternative Specification (Kingdon) • The agenda is a list of subjects or problems to which governmental officials are paying some serious attention to at any given time. Alternative specification refers to the process of accumulating solutions to deal with the agenda subjects or problems. Out of the set of all conceivable alternatives, officials actually consider some more seriously than others. So the process of specifying alternatives narrows the set of conceivable alternatives to the set that is seriously considered (p.4) • There are several processes of agenda setting and alternative specification. First, issues may rise up to governmental agenda status if they grasp political official’s attention through changes in indicators and dramatic events or crisis. A second contributor might be a process of gradual accumulation of knowledge and perspectives among the specialists in a given policy area, and a generation of policy proposals by those specialists. Third, political processes affect the agenda such as swings of national mood, election results, changes of administration,
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Test 1 Study Guide - 1. Agendas (Kingdon) The agenda is the...

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