his 206 notes ch 3 - Chantal Sarji HIS 206-02 Chapter 3...

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Chantal SarjiHIS 206-02Chapter 3 NotesEgypt and the Bronze Age (5000-1200 BCE)Arose in the Nile River valleyGeographical location of Egypt caused a political unity unlike Mesopotamia Before the Pharaohs (5000-3000 BCE)By 3000 BCE, Egypt is unified under one powerful ruler.Geography and CultureNile river-predictable unlike the Mesopotamian floods that were irregularSummer monsoon rains overflowed in mid-August, but in the fall = more fertile soilRichest agricultural land in all of the Mediterranean world (3 crops a year) Life was based on the cycle of the Nile resulting in 3 seasons: inundation (flood), going forth (planting), and deficiency (low water and harvest).2 sections: lower and upper Egypt. The lower=Nile delta and the upper=up to KushEgypt divided into 42 smaller districts called nomes (22 upper and 20 lower) The Sahara desert bounded Egypt in the east and westEgypt was isolated from foreign contact and marked as culturally continuous. They thought they were the best people with the best life on EarthNile River was the only way of access.The Origins of the EgyptiansDynasties of pharaohs=rulers : “Great House” 5500 BCE-Sahara dries out causing people to move towards the Nile River valley to adopt an agricultural lifestyle.5000 BCE-Badarian culture in upper EgyptoHunted many animals and pursued agricultural economyoDistinctive pottery without the wheeloSocial stratification with rich goods; burials separated in sections based onthis4500-3500 BCE-Naqada I in upper Egypt oUsed copper and flint a lot oSociety more differentiated, not only from grave goods, but clay/ivory figuresoCarved stone mace heads showed prestige3500 BCE-Naqada II oFull-scale farming and basin irrigation (store and conduct water into large areas of farmland)oPopulations grew and towns were represented by symbols (animals=divine)oSocial status became significant with sectioned burials. The elite would control resources to build detailed tombs.oEgyptian rulers expanded authority to other areas
Chantal SarjiHIS 206-02Chapter 3 NotesoTrade routes along the Nile for long distances causing river valley culturesto dominate desert culturesMaadi CultureoOval huts for grain storage show sedentary lifestyle, but trade was existentoLower Egypt egalitarian more than upper Egypt oNo social stratification and labor specializationoAll arable lands occupied by settlers causing no room for desert dwellers o3000 BCE-hyper aridity in the SaharaNaqada III Period (3200-3000 BCE)Mastaba-burial architecture by high social statusEgypt unified; upper Egyptian ruler word the Hedjet and the lower Egypt ruler wore a DeshretLower Egypt had a center for cobra goddess, Wadjet, called Per-Wadjet and Xau for the water and weaving goddess, Neith. Upper Egypt had: Nubt (“city of gold”;storm god named Set), Nekhen (falcon god, Horus), Nekheb (Nekbet, sister of Wadjet, primary deity of Upper Egypt), Abydos/This (cemetery god, Khentiamentiu)

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