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Chapter 2 - 204-325 1 Summary of the Last Lecture Gene is a...

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Unformatted text preview: 204-325 1 Summary of the Last Lecture Gene is a section of the DNA which encodes a RNA molecule. Eukaryotes have more complicated internal structures than prokaryotes. All cells proliferate by mitosis, producing genetically identical daughter cells. In sexual reproduction, diploid cells undergo meiosis to form haploid gametes. Recombination during meiosis generates genetic diversity. 2 Today's Topics 1. Principle of Segregation 2. Principle of Independent Assortment 3. Chi-Square Test 4. Mendelian Inheritance in Human 3 Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 4 Topic 1 Mendel's First Law: Principle of Segregation 5 Influences on the Phenotype of the Genotype . 6 Flowering Plant 7 Artificial Fertilization 8 Procedure for Crossing Pea Plants . 9 Seven Characters Mendel Studied in Experiments . 10 Results of One Monohybrid Cross . 11 The F2 Progenies . 12 Mendel's Monohybrid Data 13 Dominant and Recessive Alleles . 14 Mendel's First Law: Principle of Segregation (F1 Generation) . 15 Mendel's First Law: Principle of Segregation (F2 Generation) . 16 Branch Diagram for Calculating the F2 Phenotypes . 17 Determining Genotypes by Self-Cross . 18 Determining Genotype by Testcross . 19 Animation 1: Mendel's First Law 20 Molecular Basis of Smooth and Wrinkled Smooth and Wrinkled Peas SBE1 Smooth SBE=Starch-branching Enzyme 21 Mendel's Model 22 Mendel's First Law Two members of a gene pair (alleles) segregate (separate) from each other in the formation of gametes; half the gametes carry one allele, and the other half carry the other allele. 23 Topic 2 Mendel's Second Law: Principle of Independent Assortment 24 A Dihybrid Cross . 25 Independent Assortment (Punnett Square) . 26 Branch Diagram for the Dihybrid Cross . 27 Testcrosses for Dihybrids 28 Branch Diagram of a Trihybrid Cross . 29 Beyond Trihybrid . 30 Animation 2: Mendel's Second Law 31 Mendel's Second Law Genes for different traits segregate independently of one another in gamete production. 32 Mendel's Scientific Approach Quantitative Analysis Experimental Manipulation Hypothesis Testing Use Model Organism 33 Topic 3 Chi-Square Test 34 Chi-Square: a Quantification of Deviation 2= (o-e)2 e 35 P Value Table: Statistical Significance P Values 2 36 Chi Square Test 1. Calculate chi-square: deviation value 2= (o-e)2 e 2. Get the degree of freedom df=n-1 3. Look up the P Value Table P is the probability of getting deviation equal or greater than the chi-square at the df purely due to chance 4. If P<0.05 Hypothesis is rejected by data If P>0.05 Hypothesis is not rejected by the data 37 Topic 4 Mendelian Inheritance in Human 38 Human Inheritance Follows Mandel's Law 39 Symbols Used in Human Pedigree Analysis . 40 A Pedigree . 41 Recessive Albinism Phenotype . 42 Dominant Achondroplasia Phenotype . 43 Summary Phenotypes of an organism are produced by the interaction between its genotypes and the environment. Mendel's first law, the principle of segregation, states that the two members of a gene pair segregate from each other in the formation of gametes. Mendel's second law, the principle of independent assortment, states that members of different genes pairs are segregated independently during gamete production. 44 ...
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