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TEST 2 Review Guide

TEST 2 Review Guide - Chapter 5 apartheid system perpetuate...

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Chapter 5 apartheid system- perpetuate white supremeacy, replaced by majority rule in early 1990s dictatorship- self-appointed rules exercising unchecked political power benevolent autocrat-somewhat concerned with advancing the public good ordinary dictators- concerneced solely with advancing own interests tyrants- exhibit great enthusiasm for violence and bloodletting historically, authoritarian rulers provided most common form of govt. Chapter 6 totalitarianism- political system in which every facet of the society, the economy, and the govt. is tightly controlled by the ruling elite. Secret police, terrorism and a radical ideology implemented through mass mobilization and propaganda are hallmarks of the totalitarian state's methods and goals. rectification - in Maoist China, the eliminatin of all purported capitalist traits, such as materialism and individualism. islands of seperateness - family, church, or other social organizations through which internal resistance to the prevailing totalitarian regime can persist. propaganda - Gleichschaltung - hitler's technique of using Nazi-controlled associations, clubs and organizations to coordinate his revolutionary activites Kuomintang - the Chinese Nationalist Party, led by Chiang Kai-shek, defeated by Mao Zedong in 1949 Purges- the elimination of all rivals to power through mass arrests, imprisonment, exile, and murder, often directed at former associates and their followers who have (or are imagined to have) enough influence to be a threat to the ruling elite. salami tactics- the methods used by Lenin to divide his opponents into small groups that coule be turned against one another and easily overwhelmed Gestapo -in Nazi Germany, the secret state police—Hitler's instrument for spreading mass terror among Jews and political opponents. kulaks- a class of well-to-do landowners in Russian society that was purged by Joseph Stalin because it resisted his drive to establish huge collective farms under state control. collectivization- the takeover of all lands and other means of production by the state
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gulag archipelago- a network of desolate slave-labor camps maintained and operated by the Soviet secret police where social and political undesirables were forced to live. Hundred Flowers campaign- A brief period in China (1956) when Mao Zedong directed that freedom of expression and individualism be allowed; it was quashed when violent criticism of the regime erupted. Great Leap forward- Mao Zedong's attempt, in late 1950s and early 1960s, to transform and modernize China's economic structure through mass mobilization of the entire population into self-sufficient communes in which everything was done in groups. Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution- A chaotic period beginning in 1966, when the youth of China (the Red Guards), at Mao Zedong's direction, attacked by all bureaucratic and military officials on the pretext that a reemergence of capitalist and materialist tendencies was taking place. The offending officials were sent to foced labor camps to be "reeducated." theocracy- govt. based on religion and dominated by the clergy.
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