ch 8-14 notes

ch 8-14 notes - Chapter 8 Presidentialism the president is...

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Chapter 8 Presidentialism- the president is the sole effective head of govt, constitutionally armed with real-decision making powers Parliamentary- govt. refers to the head of govt. and the various ministers of the executive branch. The head of govt is the chief decision maker Two step process of govt. selection: o 1. The people elect the national legislature o 2. The national legislature (usually the lower house in bicameral legislatures) elects or approves the government. Investiture- formal vote of legislature to formally approve a new govt. Vote of confidence - showdown in the legislature to determine if the govt. still had support of a voting majority of legislators Single-party majoritarian govt.- 1 party wins an absolute majority of seats in the natl. legislature and forms the govt. -other parties in the House assumed the role of opposition parties Party discipline- maintained when the parliamentary deputies of a particular party vote together unanimously as a bloc. -Single-party majority govt. can exhibit remarkable efficiency Hung parliament - no party succeeds in winning an absolute majority Majority coalition govt : Coalition government- consists of two or more parties that agree to share cabinet posts, usually in order to form a voting majority in the legislature Advantages: -small parties greater involvement -ongoing negotiations amongst the parties that take part in it -“government by bargaining par excellence -expand representation in the executive branch of government -they increase the level of bargaining and compromise in the executive branch of govt. -flexibility and adaptability- may be able to form a new coalition govt. without having to wait for the next election Disadvantages: inefficiency produce governmental ineffectivess small parties may gain a level of influence in the government that far outweighs their share of electoral support
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governmental instability- the break down of coalitions Minority Government consists of one or more parties whose delegates do no constitute a majority of the legislative house o parliamentary alliance - two or more parties agree that they will not share cabinet posts, but their legislators will vote together to support the govt. and pass legislation o ask opposition parties to abstain from voting against it whenever it presents its bills to the legislature for a vote. Anticipated elections- parliamentary elections that take place before the expiration of the legislature’s full term Happen when: no govt. can be formed in the national legislature public pressure demands immediate elections (even though the govt. is not obliged by law to hold them) the govt. wants snap elections so as to solidify a parliamentary majority Presidential-Parliamentary Democracies features a president and a prime minister who each have significant decision- making powers o president elected by the voters o prime minister approved by the parliament o dual executive system
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ch 8-14 notes - Chapter 8 Presidentialism the president is...

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