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CHAPTER 4 ORGANIZATION OF THE CELL 1.Cell theory a.17thcenturyRobert Hook b.Cells are basic units of life i.Smallest scale of organization and function in all living organisms c.All living organisms contain cells i.May be unicellular or multicellular d.Cells can only come from existing cells i.All living cells have evolved from a common ancestor 2.Homeostasis a.Balanced internal environment b.Cells have organelles, internal structures that carry out specific functions, that help to maintain homeostasis 3.Plasma membrane (cell membrane) a.Surrounds the cell b.Separates cell from external environment c.Maintains internal conditions
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Unformatted text preview:d. Allows the cell to exchange material with outer environment (selectively permeable) 4. Why are most cells so small? a. Have to maintain homeostasis b. Surface area-to-volume ratio: ratio of plasma membrane (surface area) to cell's volume c. As a cell becomes larger, its volume increases at a greater rate than its surface area 5. Prokaryotes a. No internal membrane organization b. Nuclear area (not nucleus) c. Cell wall d. Ribosomes e. Flagella f. Organelles not surrounded by membranes 6. Eukaryotes a. Membrane bound organelles i. Including a true nucleus