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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e1Chapter 12Nervous TissueLecture Outline
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e2INTRODUCTION•Thenervous system, along withthe endocrine system, helps tokeep controlled conditions withinlimits that maintain health andhelps to maintain homeostasis.•The nervous system isresponsible for all our behaviors,memories, and movements.•The branch of medical sciencethat deals with the normalfunctioning and disorders of thenervous system is calledneurology.
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e3Chapter 12Nervous Tissue•Controls and integrates all body activities within limitsthat maintain life•Three basic functions–sensing changes with sensory receptors•fullness of stomach or sun on your face–interpreting and remembering those changes–reacting to those changes with effectors•muscular contractions•glandular secretions
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e4Major Structures of the Nervous System•Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, entericplexuses and sensory receptors
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e5Structures of the Nervous System - Overview•Twelve pairs ofcranial nervesemerge from the base of the brainthrough foramina of the skull.–Anerveis a bundle of hundreds or thousands of axons, each ofwhich courses along a defined path and serves a specific region ofthe body.•Thespinal cordconnects to the brain through the foramen magnum ofthe skull and is encircled by the bones of the vertebral column.–Thirty-one pairs ofspinal nervesemerge from the spinal cord, eachserving a specific region of the body.•Ganglia, located outside the brain and spinal cord, are small masses ofnervous tissue, containing primarily cell bodies of neurons.•Entericplexuseshelp regulate the digestive system.•Sensoryreceptorsare either parts of neurons or specialized cells thatmonitor changes in the internal or external environment.
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e6Functions of the Nervous Systems•The sensoryfunctionof the nervous system is to sensechanges in the internal and external environment throughsensory receptors.–Sensory (afferent) neuronsserve this function.•The integrativefunctionis to analyze the sensoryinformation, store some aspects, and make decisionsregarding appropriate behaviors.–Associationorinterneuronsserve this function.•The motorfunctionis to respond to stimuli by initiatingaction.–Motor(efferent) neuronsserve this function.
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e7Nervous System Divisions•Central nervous system (CNS)–consists of the brain and spinal cord•Peripheral nervous system (PNS)–consists of cranial and spinal nerves that contain bothsensory and motor fibers–connects CNS to muscles, glands & all sensory receptors
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e8Subdivisions of the PNS•