TEST 1 Review Guide

TEST 1 Review Guide - Chapter 4 pluralism- the affirmation...

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pluralism- the affirmation and acceptance of diversity . concurrent powers- powers held by both the states and the federal government and may be exercised simultaneously within the same territory and in relation to the same body of citizens. ex. the power to tax, make roads, protect the environment, create lower courts and borrow money. It is important to remember that where there is a discrepancy, commonwealth powers prevail. Jeffersonian model- a deviating philosophy of presidential conduct in which the President tries to expand the powers of his office beyond the denoted powers of the executive branch in the U.S. Constitution . Madisonian democracy- based on assumption that humans are by nature self-interested and fractious. .natural tendency of society toward fragmentation and conflict rather than unity and harmony brokered democracy- will of majority must be brokered by lawmakers to keep all major group interests intact and protect democracy concurrent majority- concept of balancing majority and minority interests through limited government . The most vocal proponents of the theory have tended to be aristocrats , finding themselves in the minority and fearing the tyranny of the majority assumed to be made possible by unlimited democracy . dual federalism- the belief that having separate but equal branches of government is the best option. Specifically, dual federalism discusses the relationship between the national government and the states' governments. police powers- the power of a state to make laws and to use physical violence in order to coerce its subjects into obeying those laws. new federalism- the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government to the U.S. states . supremacy clause- establishes the Constitution, Federal Statutes, and U.S. treaties as "the supreme law of the land." unitary system- a state or country that is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature . prefects- In France, the heads of major governmental agenices tutelage- the system of central bureaucratic supervision of all local decisions found in a unitary system of government (ex. France) Petition of Right- English Parliament 1628, established due process of law and strictly limited the monarch's powers of taxation. Star Chamber- British court whose jurisdiction was extended to allow the king arbitrarily to punish anyone. Habeas Corpus Act- protection of law Dr. Bonham's case- principle that legislative acts contrary to the rule of law are null and void. ex post facto law- retroactively criminalizes acts that were legal at the time they were committed. bill of attainder- legislative decree that declares a person guilty and prescribes punishment without any judicial process. protective democracy- highest priority on nat'l security
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course GVPT 100 taught by Professor Grant-wisdom during the Fall '06 term at Maryland.

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TEST 1 Review Guide - Chapter 4 pluralism- the affirmation...

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