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Final Test MGMTChapter 9Communication ProcessoCommunicationSharing of information between two or more people to achieve a common understanding about an object or situation.Successful when received and understood the right wayoProcessEncodingA sender translates the information he or she wishes to send in a message.Communication MediumManner In which the message is conveyedoText, e-mail, phoneDecodingReceiver perceives a sent message and interprets its meaning.FeedbackReceiver encodes the message received and sends it or response back tothe original sender.Referred to as two-way communicationInterpersonal CommunicationoDirect verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or more active participantsFormal vs. Informal CommunicationoFormalFollows the formal structure of the organization and entails organizationally sanctioned informationDrawback is it can be slowoInformal Involves spontaneous interaction between two or more people outside the formal organization structure.Ex. Peers at coffee breakCan be important sourceReach more membersBuild solidarity and friendshipDrawbackRumors and gossipoRumorsUnsubstantiated information of universal interestAvoidProvide honest workplaceoGossipInformation that is presumed to be factual and is communicated in private or intimate settings
Personal livesAvoidQuestion evaluationCommunication MediaoRichnessAmount of information a medium can conveyRequiresAvailability of feedbackUse of multiple cuesUse of effective languageThe extent to which the communication has personal focusFace-face is the richestRichest to least richestFace-to-faceTelephoneElectronicPersonal written textFormal written textFormal numerical textRequires trade-off of richness or medium and cost of using itPick medium based on organizational normsNonverbal CommunicationoNonverbalTakes place without spoken or written languageSuch as communication through facial expressions and body language3 categoriesBody languageoFacial expressionoArms, handsParalanguageoTone, pitch, silenceGesturesoSigns used to convey message60-90% of communication is nonverbalLeaky behaviorBehavior we can’t controlProvides information about attitudes or emotionsUseful form of feedbackReveal whether a person is lyingLying nonverbal cuesSubtle shifts in pitch or toneLong pausesMannerismsFleeting smilesBarriers to effective communication
oOrganizational BarriersInformation OverloadReasonsoFace high level of uncertainty of change so they obtain more to reduce uncertaintyoTask complexity oTechnology developmentTry to escape situationPrioritize informationForwarding FrenziesoDue to electronicsHow to dealo