FINAL EXAM REVIEW

FINAL EXAM REVIEW - Conflict Just War Tradition rules about...

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Conflict “Just War Tradition”: rules about appropriate justifications for war, proper channels and notification for going to war, and ethical and moral conduct during war o rules for going to war o need “just-cause” (ie self-defense or human rights violations) o must intend to establish “just peace” o war must be last resort o intent to go to war & justifications must be announced…typically through UN o ethical remove forces quickly after goals are achieved protect non-combatants from harm as much as possible avoid undue human suffering treat POWs properly International crises o Foreign policy crisis: definition (three perceptual requirements) begin when one state experiences a foreign policy crisis that results from or causes an increase in hostile interactions between it and another state o 3 requirements 1. a threat to basic values 2. decision must be made in a finite time period 3. a heightened probability of military hostilities o Causes/triggers Immediate, triggering events Background/contextual factors Characteristics/changes in International System o Various things that can occur or have heightened tendency to occur during crisis decision-making Threatening Verbal statements Political acts Economic acts Other non-violent, non-military acts i.e. intelligence reports Coup Mobilization of troops Attack on a states ally Direct military attack Decision making in crisis Affected by stress, emotion, exhaustion Decision makers (DMs) Rationalize own choices as “good” & “necessary”
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Over-reliance on stereotypes, past, etc. o Outcomes o Effects Groupthink o Has high chance of occurring o Individual members just go with predominal group opinion o Tend to be overly optimistic about choices o Diffused responsibility for bad decisions o DMs are high ranking government elites Bounded rationality o Doesn’t follow classical model o So not optimization , instead satisficing Optimization vs. “satisficing” o Satisficing=get “good enough” solution that satisfies minimal criteria Protracted conflict- o Long-term hostile interactions o Sporadic outbreaks of open warfare i.e. Israel/Palestine Learning in conflict/crisis o Winners tend to use same strategy next time o Losers likely to be more coercive next time Huntington on the “clash of civilizations”: what is his main argument? o In post cold-war era, conflict will be based in cultural/religious identities between civilizations Self-determination o People ought to be able to determine own governmental forms and structures Secession Irredentism o Belief that a region should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related Democratic peace (NOTE: see Russett reading and in-class discussion) Russett – McWorld Countries w/ McDonald’s don’t fight
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course PSC 003 taught by Professor Quinn during the Spring '06 term at GWU.

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FINAL EXAM REVIEW - Conflict Just War Tradition rules about...

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