Chapter 11 Outline

Chapter 11 Outline - Chapter 11 Effective Work Groups and...

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Chapter 11 - Effective Work Groups and Teams Tuesday, April 01, 2008 3:44 AM 1. Process Losses, Process Gains, and Group Effectiveness a. Potential Performance i. Potential Performance - the highest level of performance a group is capable of achieving at a given point in time 1. Important because it reflects a work group's capabilities 2. Often hard to know in advance and can change as conditions change ii. Managers and groups need to strive to ensure that a group's actual performance comes as close as possible to its potential performance b. Process Losses and Performance i. Process Losses - performance difficulties that a group experiences because of coordination and motivation problems 1. Managers must try to eliminate as many process losses as possible 2. Coordination Problems occur when the organization's activities are divided among group members and their inputs are combined into a product or output ii. Process losses can also arise from interpersonal difficulties among members 1. Blaming other members for the losses c. Process Gains and Performance i. Managers also need to increase a group's potential performance, or effectiveness, by finding ways to improve group motivation and coordination ii. Process Gains - increases in potential performance that result from new ways of motivating and coordinating group members 1. These can lead to groups being more creative and coming up with innovative solutions to problems 2. Can sometimes be achieved by encouraging members to be more creative and willing to take risks d. A manager's key objectives in creating and sustaining highly effective work groups are: i. Eliminate process losses by ensuring actual performance is as close as possible to potential performance ii. Create process gains by continually raising the level of potential performance 2. Social Loafing: A Problem in Group Motivation and Performance a. Social Loafing - the tendency of individuals to exert less effort when they work in a group than when they work alone i. Higher potential for this when individual performances are not readily observable ii. Can seriously impact the group effectiveness and lead to process losses b. Occurs for two main reasons:
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i. The lack of connection between inputs (motivation, effort) and outcomes (pay, praise) ii. Employees in a group sometimes think that their own efforts are unimportant or not needed 1. Lowers their levels of motivation c. Sucker Effect - occurs when group members who were not originally inclined to
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Chapter 11 Outline - Chapter 11 Effective Work Groups and...

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