Chapter 05 - Reactions Between Ions in Aqueous Solution Why...

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6dec633ebf15b6c4b39b0a34b71df4816f1c229d.doc Reactions Between Ions in Aqueous Solution Why do reactions occur in solution? Three types of reactions we will study in Chapter 5 1. Ionization reactions -producing precipitates -producing gases 2. Acid-Base neutralization reactions 3. Metathesis reactions Note; oxidation/reduction reactions are a very important class of reactions that occur in solution. These are covered entirely in Chapter 6. Solute What you are dissolving Solvent Medium in which solute is dissolved Solution Results from dissolving a solute in a solvent If we are going to conduct chemical reactions in solution, we need some way to quantify how much is in a solution. We use the term concentration to describe the ratio of solute/solvent or solute/solution. Chem 111 lecture notes page1 by Alan Zombeck
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6dec633ebf15b6c4b39b0a34b71df4816f1c229d.doc Dilute solution Ratio of solute to solvent is small Concentrated solution Ratio of solute to solvent is large Saturated solution Solution cannot dissolve anymore solute Unsaturated solution Solution can still dissolve more solute Supersaturated solution Solution contains more solute than its saturation point. figure 5.2 shows difference between a dilute and concentrated solution What happens when we dissolve ionic compounds in water?? Electrolytes Ionic compounds dissolve in water to create solutions that conduct electricity. We say that ionic compounds dissociate when dissolved in water see figure 5.5 Chem 111 lecture notes page2 by Alan Zombeck
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6dec633ebf15b6c4b39b0a34b71df4816f1c229d.doc Non-electrolytes Do not conduct electricity when dissolved in water All molecular compounds are non-electrolytes when dissolved in water. see figure 5.6 Equations for dissociation reactions NaCl (s) Na (aq) + + Cl - (aq) CaCl 2 (s) Ca (aq) +2 + 2 Cl - (aq) But, polyatomic ions do not dissociate. Why?? For example Na 2 SO 4 (s) 2Na (aq) + + SO 4 -2 (aq) Molecular, Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations Most of the equations discussed so far have been known as molecular equations. i.e. they tell us what is happening to the molecules. Molecular equations complete formulas are written for all the reactants and products; the formulas do not indicate the presence of ions. To provide a more accurate picture of what is happening, we write an ionic equation in which the formulas of all soluble strong electrolytes are shown in their dissociated forms . Chem 111 lecture notes page3 by Alan Zombeck
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6dec633ebf15b6c4b39b0a34b71df4816f1c229d.doc Let’s write the acid/base neutralization reaction of nitric acid and potassium hydroxide as a complete ionic equation. H + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + K + (aq) + OH - (aq) K + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + H 2 O Ions that do not actually take part in a reaction are known as spectator ions. What are the spectator ions in the above equation?
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