Chapter 01 - Chapter 1 Atoms and Elements: The Building...

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Chapter 1 Atoms and Elements: The Building Blocks of Chemistry Chemistry is important for anyone studying the Sciences Chemistry is a science that seeks to discover what substances are made of and how the properties of substances are related to their compositions chemistry is especially concerned with understanding the changes that take place between chemicals in other words, chemical reactions let’s look at a simple example sodium + chlorine So chemistry is all about studying chemical reactions, but to do so, we need some tools. In Chapters 1 and 3 we look at some of those tools, namely The Scientific Method (Chapter 1) Units of Measurements (Chapter 3) Significant figures Problem solving techniques (Chapter 3) Factor-label method The Scientific Method helps us build models of nature Observations and conclusions are not the same thing Observation is a statement that accurately describes something we see, hear, taste, feel, or smell . Conclusion is a statement that is based on what we think about a series of observations Lecture notes for Chem 111 by Dr. Alan Zombeck 1
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Before doing an experiment, we put forth a tentative explanation as to what may happen, ie speculate the outcome. this is called our hypothesis origin of hypothesis We then do the experiments, and collect data, or make observations. We use the data to provide explanations. Repeated expected results leads to theories and scientific laws For an example of the scientific method in action, check out http://www.twinkiesproject.com/index.html Atomic Theory is a Model of Matter All chemical substances are composed of tiny particles that we call atoms. Individual atoms combine in diverse ways to form more complex particles we call molecules See figure 1.1 Lecture notes for Chem 111 by Dr. Alan Zombeck 2 Observations Empirical facts Scientific laws Explanation Hypothesis Theories
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Different ways to show molecules are shown in figure 1.2 Properties of materials can be classified in different ways Properties can be classified as physical or chemical Physical property can be observed without changing the chemical make up of a substance Chemical property describes a chemical change (chemical reaction) that a substance undergoes Thus, we can talk about matter undergoing a chemical change or a physical change , For example, dissolving sugar in water (physical change) vs heat sugar in a pan to a high temperature Properties can also be classified as intensive or extensive Intensive properties independent of sample size Examples; color, electrical properties Extensive properties depends on sample size Examples; mass, volume Lecture notes for Chem 111 by Dr. Alan Zombeck 3 Should be a review for you
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Some kinds of properties are better than others for identifying substances Materials are described by their properties
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Chapter 01 - Chapter 1 Atoms and Elements: The Building...

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