Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding Some common...

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Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding Some common molecular structures Ionic compounds atoms attracted to each other by charge No preferred directional properties!!! usually ionic compounds are solids, with the ions arranged in a lattice network, which is lost when the solid melts or is dissolved Molecular compounds (covalent bonding – sharing of electrons) have 3D shapes that are determined by the relative orientations of their covalent bonds in other words we are only concerned about predicating the shapes of molecules that have covalent bonds Some Common Molecular Structures be sure to memorize these shapes Molecular Geometry or structure # of electron pairs attached to Central Atom Bond Angle Linear 2 180 Planar Triangular 3 120 Tetrahedral 4 109 Trigonal Bipyramid 5 Axial bond = 90 Equatorial bond = 120 Octahedral 6 90 Triganol bipyramid Chem 111 lecture notes By Alan Zombeck page1 Axial bond Equatorial bond
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Predicting the shapes of molecules VSEPR V alence S hell E lectron P air R epulsion theory Theory used to predict the shapes of molecules Based on the premise that valence shell electron pairs, being negatively charged, stay as far apart as possible so that the repulsions between them are at a minimum. To use VSEPR 1. draw Lewis structure of the molecule 2. count number of atoms bonded to central atoms 3. count number of lone pairs of electrons on central atom 4. add totals of 2 and 3 this gives total number of “electron pairs” 5. based on the total number of atoms and lone pairs (4), select basic geometry (sometimes called VSEPR geometry) to arrange these “groups” around the central atom. 6. from this VSEPR geometry describe the resulting “shape” of the molecule, ignoring the lone pairs Figure 10.2 Shapes expected for different numbers of electron pairs around a central atom Figure 10.3 Molecular shapes with 4 electron pairs around the central Atom Figure 10.4 Molecular shapes with 5 electron pairs around the central Atom Lone pairs always are placed in the equatorial bonds!! Figure 10.5
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Zombeck during the Winter '07 term at Saginaw Valley.

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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding Some common...

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