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EES 100 test 3 study guide

EES 100 test 3 study guide - EES 100 Test#3 Study Guide...

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EES 100 Test #3 Study Guide Chapter 17 Waste Management Problems: urban areas are producing too much waste and there is far too little space for disposal; cost (billions of dollars per year) Dilute and Disperse: disposal of waste into rivers (1 st century of Industrial Revolution) Concentrate and Contain: waste concentrated in containers (may break and allow waste to escape); transition from dilute & disperse to this because of expansion of industrial and urban areas Integrated Waste Management: a set of management alternatives (1980s) Source reduction, recycling, reusing, composting, landfilling, and incinerating Reduce, recycle, reuse Materials management: o Eliminating subsidies for extraction of virgin materials (timber, minerals, and oil) o Establishing “green building” incentives that use recycled materials and products in new construction o Establishing financial penalties for production of those products that do not meet the objectives of material management practices o Providing financial incentives for those industrial practices and products that benefit the environment by enhancing sustainability (encouraging products that reduce waste production and use recycled materials) o Providing incentives for the production of new jobs in the technology of materials management as well as incentives for practicing reducing, recycling, and reusing resources Solid Waste Disposal Major types of solid waste (%, + or – over past 20 years) Paper (35%, n) Yard waste (12%, -) Food waste (12%, +) Plastics (11%, +) Other (rubber, leather, textiles) (11%, +) Metals (8%, n) Wood (6%, +) Glass (5%, -) On-site disposal: mechanical grinding of kitchen food waste Composting: organic materials decompose to a humuslike material; requires separating organic material from other waste Incineration: reduction of combustible waste to inert residue by burning at high temps. Can effectively convert a large volume of combustible waste to a much smaller volume of ash to be disposed of at a landfill Combustible waste can be used to supplement other fuels in generating electrical power Produces air pollution and toxic ash; smokestacks emit nitrogen and sulfur oxides
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( acid rain), carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) Waste reduction and recycling can reduce volume of waste that must be disposed of at a landfill as much as incineration can Open dumps: oldest and most common; located wherever land is available without regard to safety, health hazards, and aesthetic degradation Unsightly, health hazard, pollutes air, contaminates groundwater/surface water Sanitary landfills: confine waste to smallest practical area, reduce to smallest practical volume, cover with layer of compacted soil (covering makes it sanitary, reduces health hazards, isolates refuse from air, minimizes surface water entering waste) Two types: area landfill (flat sites) and depression landfill (natural or artificial gullies or pits) Hazards: groundwater/surface water pollution (leachate); production and escape of methane gas
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