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PSY 1630 test 1 study guide

PSY 1630 test 1 study guide - PSY1630 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE...

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PSY1630 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1 – The Study of Human Development The Study of Child Development Victor, Itard o Thought of as unhuman o France had recently become a democracy Victor could be example of rags to riches o Itard – tried to teach him to categorize, reason, and communicate Victor made rapid progress at first Never learned to speak and interact normally o Not enough research on cognitive studies at the time Discipline of Developmental Science o Child development – physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes o Locke – blank slates o Rousseau – born “pure” o Charles Darwin o Preyer – sequences of behavior Modern Developmental Science o Theoretically grounded o Interdisciplinary o Increasingly international (cross-cultured) Central Questions of Developmental Science Continuity o Is development gradual and continuous or periods of rapid change Sources of development o Genetics vs. Environment Plasticity o Are there critical or sensitive periods in development Individual differences o How do individuals come to have characteristics that make them different The Discipline of Developmental Science Scientific Description o Basic research: advance basic, scientific knowledge of human development o Applied research: answer practical questions that arise in trying to improve children’s lives and experiences o Action research: provide data for social policy decision making Criteria of scientific description o Objectivity: data collected w/o biased preconceptions o Reliability: consistency of research findings o Replicability: other researchers can create same procedures, get same results o Validity: data collected actually reflects the phenomenon claimed to being studied Methods of data collection o Triangulation: two or more methods are combined, to confirm conclusions o Naturalistic observation: observe in everyday lives and record what happens Ethology: interdisciplinary science that studies the biological, evolutionary foundations of behavior
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Ethnography: study of the cultural organization of behavior Ecology: range of situations in which people act Developmental niche: child’s place within community Physical and social context in which the child lives Culturally determined child-rearing and educational practices of child’s society Psychological characteristics of child’s parents Research designs: overall plan of how study is put together o Longitudinal: collects info on group of children as they grow older over expanded period of time; cohort o Cross-sectional: collects info on children of various ages at one time o Microgenetic: study development intensely over short periods of time Ethics o Freedom from harm o Informed consent o Confidentiality The Role of Theory Biological-maturation framework: mostly biological factors, some environmental factors Environmental-learning framework: mostly environmental factors, some biological
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PSY 1630 test 1 study guide - PSY1630 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE...

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