20th Century UK Notes - 20th Century UK Notes 31 March Jan...

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20 th Century UK Notes 31 March Jan 1901 – Queen Victoria Dies (Longest ruler in British history) Closed British epic Diamond Jubilee (1897) – Vast celebration of Victoria’s rules Boer War (1899) – Took a heavy toll on Queen Victoria. -UK sparked conflict with Boers to establish more resource control in South Africa and prevent German intervention -Jan 1901 – UK slowly exhumes formal surrender from Boers. Boers then launch guerilla warfare which force UK to open concentration camps. - Victoria began to personify the middle class mentality. -apparent in press – she is seen as model mother. -Edward 7 th was the next ruler, extremely interpersonal. -Assumption that he was an active ruler – he was lazy and not bright. -Monarch is supposed to be a visual projection (US pres combines chief exec and head of state) -British Contstitution (Walter Badget) 1. Right to be consulted 2. Right to be warned 3. Right to encourage Prime minister must consult monarch before going public with policy (This is when monarchs are most influential… via inquisitive questions) 1 April The Conservative and Liberal Establishments 1894-1906 I The Conservative (Tory) Establishment a. Marquis of Salisbury (Robert Gasoyne-Cecil). - PM of UK when Victoria Died. Steped aside for nephew Balfour. This was no unusual. - PM for 13.5 years. - Cecil lineage obtained large wealth through generations of serving UK kings and queens. Reeks of status and wealth. - The Gasoyne referred to the alliance between a noble and wealthy family. - Social status is attributed more to secondary school than college.
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Eaton was the most prestigious. (Oxford and Cambridge most prestigious universities.) - Often insisted that being PM was a ‘pain in the ass’ filled with too many extra duties. b. Arthur Balfour - in 1905, realizes the debate over free trade and went to rival Campbell-Bannerman and asked him and his liberal party to take control of parliament. Wanted to avoid debate within conservative breaking out and hurting image. - Didn’t work due to the realities of Boer War being affiliated with Torry party. c. The Khaki Election of 1900 - Every seat in house of commons was open for reelection. Lord Salisbury won a landslide. Almost unbreakable hold on power until Victoria’s death. - Issue of free trade would be the biggest challenge for the Conservative Party. - With establishment of Bismark of Germany, many UK politicians wanted to rethink trade and establish tariffs. Split within Conservative whether to maintain free trade or create customs union to combat Germany. - 21 members of cabinets. 17 attended public school. 12 went to Oxbridge. All rich. d. Joseph Chamberlain and the “Liberal Unionists.” II The Liberal Establishment: a. Earl of Rosebury a. Succeeded Gladstone. Very wealthy liberal. Didn’t have style or power as Salisbury. . b. Struggle for power in Liberal party when Gladstone dies…
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20th Century UK Notes - 20th Century UK Notes 31 March Jan...

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