Notes: Unit 5 - Unit 5 Disunion War and...

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Unit 5: Disunion, War, and Reconstruction (1844-1877)Causes/Origin of “Manifest Destiny”1.Belief in American superiorityWestern expansion already happeningGod is on their side (only America)Spreading democracy (taking over Native American and Spanish land)Land from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean is for them2.Economic opportunity the allure of the “west” (owning land is a chance for economic advancement for lower and middle class)abundance of land3.Access to natural resources and minerals untouched land for lumber, mining, even if land wasn’t farmableCalifornia Gold Rush - get rich quick 4.Connection to Asian marketsgetting to California coast means being able to communicate with AsiaUS navy getting Japan to open up borders and begin trading economic treaty with ChinaPopulation shift in Americapopulation spreads out, affecting social patterns and politicsPolitical Changes politicians speaking out for or against manifest destiny, caused sectionalism North was most opposed to manifest destiny because they didn’t want to expand slave territory, seemed like an excuse to expand slave territorySouth and West in favor (South for slavery, West for political power with more land)Northeast enjoyed a higher representation in HoR because of large population, but now people are migrating to West and MidwestPolitical parties (Democrats and Whigs) tended to support manifest destiny, but Democrats more so (common man wanting to expand territory) Both parties agreed in American superiority, but in election of 1844Election of 1840 - Whigs nominate William Henry Harrison, no political experience but significant in military, planned to be a symbolic figureOnly lasted one month because he caught pneumonia during his inauguration Zachary Taylor, not a friend of the Whig Party, becomes president Whigs pick Henry Clay (3rd time running) for election of 1844Democrats don’t have obvious candidate; James Polk was involved in politics, but not well-knownPolk made his campaign revolve 100% around manifest destinyannex Texasget California (some settlers already travelling into California) acquire all of Oregon Territory (no longer share with Britain, anti-Britain ideology)Clay tries to adopt manifest destiny principle in his campaign, but his position changed depending on crowd, so Polk wins
Congress decides to annex Texas before Polk is in, added to Union in 18451846 - Oregon Territory acquiredMexico still believed Texas was theirs, rebellion not legitimate, saw American annexationof Texas as wrong debates of Texas’s bordersMexico owns California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New MexicoAmerican settlers already there Polk tries to buy California, Mexico rejectsMexico is still a young nation, didn’t want to give away land even though not many Mexicans in the territory ← why US wants the land

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